Heineken brands

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Dutch Heineken bottle

Heineken N.V. is a Dutch brewer which owns a worldwide portfolio of over 170 beer brands, mainly pale lager, though some other beer styles are produced. The two largest brands are Heineken and Tecate; though the portfolio includes Amstel, Fosters (in Europe and Vietnam), Sagres, Cruzcampo, Skopsko, Affligem, Żywiec, Starobrno, Zagorka, Zlatý Bažant and Birra Moretti.

Heineken[edit]

Bottle label of Heineken Lager Beer

Heineken Lager Beer is the company‘s flagship product. It is a 5% abv pale lager that was first brewed in 1868. It is produced by 40 breweries in 39 countries around the world. In 2006, 2.58 billion litres of Heineken was produced. Since 1975, most Heineken beer is brewed in the Heineken brewery in Zoeterwoude, Netherlands.[citation needed]

Other beers produced under the Heineken brand name include:

Buckler[edit]

Buckler is a low alcohol (0.5% abv) pale lager. It was launched in the summer of 1988. There was a recall in 2004 due to a fault in the pasteurising process, and Buckler is no longer available in the Netherlands (Heineken's home market) after the brand's image declined following Dutch comedian Youp van 't Hek mocking the brand (and its consumers) in a show in 1989.[1]

Buckler was the beverage of choice for US President Joe Biden at the "Beer Summit" with Henry Louis Gates, James Crowley and President Barack Obama. The event was the result of the controversial arrest of Henry Louis Gates, which gained national attention regarding law enforcement racial profiling.[2] Biden acknowledged that his choice of beer was “mostly ironic."[3]

Former US President George W. Bush, who claimed that he gave up drinking alcoholic beverages after turning 40, drank Buckler while relaxing with Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel and British Prime Minister Tony Blair on 8 June 2007 during a break in the G8 summit.[4]

Subsidiaries' brands[edit]

Europe[edit]

Heineken Italy[edit]

Heineken's Italian operation began in 1974 with the acquisition of the Dreher brewery. In 1996 it added the Moretti brewery. Heineken Italy has six brewing plants producing over 575 million litres of beer, and employs over 1,000 people. Its plants are: Pollein (AO), Massafra (TA), Messina, Comun Nuovo (BG), Assemini (CA).[5]

Birra Dreher[edit]

Birra Dreher was founded in Trieste in 1896. It was bought by Heineken in 1974.[6]

Birra Ichnusa[edit]

Heineken also purchased Birra Ichnusa, a brewery founded in 1912 in Assemini, a town near the Sardinian capital Cagliari. It is named after the Latinized ancient name Sardinia, Hyknusa.

Birra Moretti[edit]

Birra Moretti was founded in Udine in 1859 by Luigi Moretti. Heineken acquired the company in 1996, selling the brewing plant to the new Castello beer company.[citation needed] There are eight beers under the Birra Moretti brand.[7]

Birra Moretti is the main brand, a 4.6% abv pale lager launched in 1859; followed by La Rossa is a 7.2% strong dark lager or dunkel. Other brands include Doppio Malto, Baffo d'Oro, and Sans Souci. It also has a number of bottled beers named after regions of Italy, such as Piemontese, a 5.5%ABV fruit beer.

Affligem Brewery[edit]

Affligem Brewery was founded in 1074, making it not only one of the oldest breweries in Belgium, but also one of the oldest businesses in the country and world.[citation needed] The Op-Ale brewery in Opwijk, Belgium was licensed by the Affligem Abbey to brew beers under the Affligem Abbey brand name, along with their own Op-Ale, as well as beers under the brand name of the Postel Abbey. Affligem was taken over by Heineken who renamed it the Affligem brewery.[citation needed]

The brewery produces a range of beers,[8] including Affligem Blonde, a 6.8% pale ale; Affligem Dubbel, a 7% dubbel, Affligem Tripel, a 9.5% tripel and Affligem Patersvat, a 6.8% belgian ale.

Athenian Brewery[edit]

Amstel, Heineken, Athenian, Alfa Hellenic, Fischer, Marathon, Zorbas Athenian Brewery S.A. is one of the most important beer producers and traders in Greece. It was established in 1963 by a group of Greek entrepreneurs and is a member of Heineken Group N. V. In 1965, the first plant started its operation in Athens, producing Amstel beer. The second plant was inaugurated in 1974 in Thessaloniki, expanding the production, whereas Amstel became one of the most famous beers in the Greek market, just like it still is today. In 1981, Athenian Brewery started Heineken beer's production in Greece, while a third plant started operating in Patra.

Amstel Brewery[edit]

The Amstel brewery was founded in 1870 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. It was taken over by Heineken in 1968, and the brewing plant closed down in 1972,[9] with production moving to the main Heineken plant at Zoeterwoude.

Heineken offer several beers under the Amstel brand.[10] Amstel Lager uses predominantly pilsener malt, although some Vienna malt is also used. It is sold in 75 countries. Amstel Light is a 3.5% abv pale lager. Amstel 1870 is a slightly dark 5% abv lager. In France a beer called Amstel Free, with minimal alcohol content – about 1% abv, is produced.

Beamish and Crawford[edit]

Beamish & Crawford in Cork brews both an Irish stout and a red ale. It has been part of Heineken since 2009.

Bochkarev Brewery[edit]

Bochkarev (Russian: Бочкарев) is a Russian brewery that started as a soft drinks company called Bravo, opening a brewery in St Petersburg in 1988.

In 1993 a group of Icelandic businessmen founded a bottling plant in Saint Petersburg, which was later sold to Pepsi.[citation needed] Since 1995 the company named "Bravo International" launched production of alcoholic long drinks and lemonades under "Bravo" brand at its new site.

In 1998 "Bravo International" started construction of a brewery in Saint Petersburg, where in February 1999 "Bochkarev" beer was first brewed.[11][12]

In 2002 Bravo sold its brewing business to Heineken.[13][14] Since 2004 Bochkarev is brewed also under license in Almaty brewery Tian Shan; since 2006 its production started at a newly acquired PIT brewery in Kaliningrad. On top of that the beer has been available for export mainly in CIS countries and those with a notable number of Russian expats.

The assortment range includes the following beer types:

  • Bochkarev lager (Bochkarev svetloye)
  • Bochkarev classic (Bochkarev klassicheskoye)
  • Bochkarev extra (Bochkarev krepkoye)
  • Bochkarev without alcohol (Bochkarev bezalkogolnoye)

Brand Brewery[edit]

Brand Brewery is a Dutch brewery founded in 1871 by the Brand family in Wijlre. The name comes from the Brand family which in 1871 purchased the Netherlands' oldest brewery (originally founded in 1340) and remained in management after its acquisition by Heineken.[15]

The brewery produces eight beers. Brand Pils is a 5.0% abv pale lager made since 1902. It is sold in the United States as Royal Brand Beer; Brand Urtyp is a 5.5% abv pale lager introduced in 1952 and claimed to be based on the Pilsener recipe from 1842 – Urtyp stands for "original"; Brand Oud Bruin (Brand Old Brown) is a 3.5% abv brown ale; Brand Cuvée a 5.5% abv top fermenting pale lager;[16] Brand Imperator (since 1949) – 6.5% abv – amber colored, full malted premium beer; Brand Meibock (since 1994) a 6.5% abv goldbrown Spring seasonal beer; Brand Dubbelbock (since 1987) a 7.5% abv Autumn seasonal beer; Brand Sylvester (since 1984) a 7.5% abv Winter seasonal beer.

Caledonian Brewery[edit]

Caledonian Brewery is a Scottish brewery founded in 1869 in Edinburgh, primarily specialising in Scottish ale. Between 2004 and 2008, the brewery was bought by Scottish and Newcastle.

Central de Cervejas brewery[edit]

Sociedade Central de Cervejas (SCC) is a Portuguese brewery, founded in 1934, that produces a range of beers, mainly pale lagers. Its main output is the Sagres brand of beers. The company has been controlled since April 2008 by Heineken.[citation needed] The Sagres brand was created in 1940 to represent Sociedade Central de Cervejas at the Portuguese World Exhibition, and is named after a town of the same name. It was the first beer to be exported by SCC, arriving first in Gibraltar before being exported to the Azores and the various Portuguese Overseas Territories across the world.[citation needed]

Sagres beers made:

  • Sagres
  • Sagres Preta
  • Sagres Bohemia
  • Sagres Radler
  • Sagres sem Álcool
  • Sagres sem Álcool Preta
  • Sagres Special Editions

Cruzcampo Brewery[edit]

Founded in 1904 by Roberto Osborne and Agustín Osborne in Seville, takes the name of La Cruz del Campo (The Cross of the Field), which used to be a cross in the middle of the field, which still stands today next to the brewery in Seville.[citation needed]

Nowadays it is part of the Heineken corporation who bought it from Guinness.[17] Cruzcampo can be found anywhere in Spain, but it is in Andalusia where it is most consumed.[citation needed] It has breweries in Seville, Madrid, Valencia, Jaén and Arano. The logo since 1926 has been the figure of Gambrinus, a legendary creator of beer.[citation needed] Cruzcampo is the sponsor of the Spain national football team.[citation needed]

Beers also made:

De Ridder Brewery[edit]

The De Ridder brewery in Maastricht was taken over by Heineken and closed in 2002.[citation needed] Wieckse Witte, a 5% abv white beer, was introduced in 1988.[citation needed]

a glass of Fürstenberg

Fürstenberg Brewery[edit]

The Princely Fürstenberg Brewery (Fürstlich Fürstenbergische Brauerei KG) was founded in Donaueschingen, Germany in 1283 by the Princely House of Fürstenberg. Heineken acquired the brewery in October 2004 through their Brau Holding International AG company which is co-owned by Schörghuber.[citation needed]

The brewery produces Fürstenberg Gold, and Qowaz, a drink made from a mix of wheat beer, cola and lemongrass.

Karlovačko Brewery[edit]

The Karlovačko Brewery (hr: Karlovačka pivovara, shortform Karlovačko) is a Croatian brewery, founded in 1854 by local landowner Baron Nikola Vranyczany in the town of Karlovac. In 2003, Heineken International acquired a majority stake.

As of December 2006, the following beers are brewed regularly by Karlovačko:

Krušovice Brewery[edit]

A beer bottle of Krušovice beer

The Royal Brewery of Krušovice (cs: Královský pivovar Krušovice, shortform Krušovice) is a Czech brewery, established in 1581 by Jiří Birka in the village of Krušovice. The brewery gained a contract to provide beer to Emperor Rudolf II in 1583, allowing them to use the Imperial Crown of Austria as part of the company's logo. The company was acquired by Heineken in July 2007.[18]

As of December 2006, the following beers are brewed regularly by Krušovice:

  • Krušovické černé
  • Krušovické černé 3.5%
  • Krušovické Imperial 12°
  • Krušovické Jubilejní ležák
  • Krušovické ležák 12°
  • Krušovické Ale MoC Dovolená 5.3%
  • Krušovické Mušketýr
  • Krušovické Radler
  • Krušovické světlé 10°

Murphy's Brewery[edit]

A glass of Murphy's Irish Red

Murphy's brewery was founded in Cork, Ireland in 1856. It was known as Lady's Well Brewery until it was purchased by Heineken in 1983, when the name changed to Murphy Heineken Brewery Ireland Ltd.[citation needed]

The two most notable brands are Murphy's Irish Stout, a 4.3% Irish stout, and Murphy's Irish Red, a 5% Irish ale.

France[edit]

  • Ancre
  • Fischer Tradition
  • Fischer Réserve Ambrée
  • Fischer Blanche
  • Pêcheur
  • Adelscott
  • Desperados
  • Edelweiss
Brasserie Pelforth (Pelforth brewery)[edit]
Pelforth Brune
25 cl bottle of Pelforth Brune

Pelforth is a French brewery founded in 1914 in Mons-en-Barœul by three Lillois brewers. It was originally called Pelican, after a dance popular at the time. Production was stopped during World War II, restarting in 1950. The brewery name was changed in 1972 to Pelforth. It was bought by Français de Brasserie in 1986, which was acquired by Heineken International in 1988.[citation needed]

The brewery produces the Pelforth brand of beers: Pelforth, an ale, was first brewed in 1935 using two different types of malt and English yeast. The name came from "Pel" for pelican, "forte" for strong, because it contains a lot of malt (43 kg/hL), and the h added to give it an English feel. In addition to the Blonde (5.8% abv) and Brune (6.5% abv), Pelforth Amber (6% abv) was introduced in 2003. The Pelforth brewery also produces George Killian's, a 6.5% amber or Irish ale. Among connoisseurs, it is "famous for its strong speciality beers".[19]

Pivovar Kutná Hora[edit]

Brewery in Kutná Hora, Czech Republic

It brews the following beers Bohemian pilsners:

  • Dačický (Kutnohorský Světlý Leák)
  • Jaroov Světlý Leák (Jarosover Pils)
  • Kutna Hora Bronzova 10
  • Kutná Hora Stříbrná 11
  • Kutna Hora Zlata 12
  • Mikulas 13 Dark

Skopje Brewery[edit]

The Skopje Brewery (Macedonian: Пивара Скопје, Pivara Skopje) is a North Macedonian brewery in Skopje. It is a joint venture between Coca-Cola HBC AG and Heineken International. Skopje brews the premium brand beer Skopsko as well as Gorsko.[citation needed]

Skopsko (Cyrillic: Скопско) is a 4.9% pale lager introduced in 1924. The ingredients are water; barley malt; unmalted cereals; hops; and brewers yeast.[20] The advertising slogan is "Our Best" (Macedonian: Нашето најдобро!).

Starobrno Brewery[edit]

A selection of Starobrno beers

Starobrno (Pivovar Starobrno), is a brewery in Brno, Czech Republic, founded in 1325 by the Old Brno monastery. It is now owned by Heineken.[citation needed] The main brand is Starobrno, a 5% abv pale lager.

Zagorka Brewery[edit]

A bottle of Zagorka

The Zagorka brewery was founded in 1902 and is based in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria. In the mid-1990s Zagorka became a fully owned subsidiary of Heineken. The brewery brews various Heineken brands for distribution within Bulgaria, and three exclusive brands:[21] Zagorka (Bulgarian: Загорка, 5% abv), named after the brewery's home city of Stara Zagora; and Stolichno (a 6.5% abv strong dark lager or bock) and Ariana (a 4.5% pale lager), both originally produced in Sofia by the Ariana Brewery.

Zlatý Bažant Brewery[edit]

Zlatý Bažant brewery was founded in 1969 in Slovakia, then bought by Heineken in 1995.[22] There are several brands,[23] among them Zlatý Bažant 12° (Golden Pheasant), a 5% abv (12 degrees Plato) pale lager, and Kelt 12°, another 5% pale lager.

Żywiec Brewery[edit]

ŻywiecPorter

Żywiec Brewery was founded in 1852 by the Habsburg family in Żywiec in Silesia, Poland. It was nationalised after the Second World War. The brewery was acquired by Heineken in the mid-1990s along with the Warszawskie Brewery, Warsaw.[citation needed]

The brewery produces several brands of beer, usually pale lagers of varying strengths from usually 10.5° to 14° Balling or 4–6% alcohol, including:

Middle East and Africa[edit]

Al Ahram Brewery[edit]

Stella Lager, brewed in Egypt

Al Ahram (Al Ahram Beverages Company or ABC) is an Egyptian brewery previously in Giza, Egypt and currently in Obour City, founded in 1897. The company was nationalized in 1963 during the tenure of Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser. It was privatized in 1997. It was bought by Heineken International in 2002.[24]

ABC produces the local brands[25] along with a range of soft drinks.

Local Beers

  • Stella 50cl, 33cl – 4.5% Alc/vol (Flagship Brand)
  • Stella 50cl returnable bottle – 4.5%Alc/vol
A bottle Sakara Weizen
  • Sakara Gold 50cl, 33cl – 4.0%Alc/vol
  • Sakara Weizen 50cl – 5.0%Alc/vol (German Weißbier Style Brew)
  • Sakara King 50cl – 10.0%Alc/vol
  • Meister Max – 8.0%Alc/vol
  • Sakara El King (Double Imperial Lager) – 15.0%Alc/vol
  • Heineken 50cl, 33cl – 5.0%Alc/vol
  • Desperados 33cl – 5.9%Alc/vol – Tequila Flavored Lager

Non Alcoholic Beverages

  • Amstel Zero – 0.0%Alc/vol
  • Birell – 0.0%Alc/vol
  • Fayrouz – 0.0%Alc/vol – Multiple flavors

Export Beer:

  • Rex Strong Beer 50cl – 8% Alc/vol (Lebanon)
  • Meister Export – 5.2% Alc/Vol

RTD Beverages

  • ID Edge 5.0%Alc/vol – Watermelon
  • ID Double Edge 10.0%Alc/vol – (Energy / Watermelon / Green Apple / Pineapple)
  • Cubana Rum Mix 10.0%Alc/vol – (Melon / Cola)
  • Butler's Gin Mix 10.0%Alc/vol – Lemon & Mint

Almaza Brewery[edit]

Almaza beer.

Almaza (Brasserie Almaza S.A.L.) is a Lebanese brewery, founded in 1933 in Bauchrieh by Lebanese shareholders, mainly the Jabre family, the Almaza Brewery was initially called Brasserie Franco-Libano-Syrienne.[citation needed]

In 1950, the name of the brewery changed to Brasserie et Malterie Almaza. In 1960, the second generation of shareholders took over the management of the brewery. After the Lebanese Civil War in the 1990s the brewery took its final name: Brasserie Almaza.[citation needed]

Almaza exports to Canada, the United States, United Kingdom, France, Australia and in the Gulf countries.[citation needed]

Beers:

  • Almaza Pilsener 33cl 4.2% alc.
  • Almaza Pilsener 50cl 4.2% alc.
  • Almaza Pure Malt 6% alc. (malt beer)
  • Al Rayess Beer 5% alc.
  • Almaza Light 33cl 2.7% alc.
  • Almaza Radler (beer & lemon) 33cl 2.0% alc.
  • Laziza Apple Light 0% alc.
  • Almaza Special Dark, 33cl 6.0% alc.

Sedibeng Brewery[edit]

Heineken entered the South African beer market by building a large greenfields brewery in Midvaal south of Johannesburg. This is a joint venture with Diageo (who own 25%) and was opened in 2010.[26]

Brands produced here:

  • Heineken Lager
  • Amstel Lager
  • Windhoek Lager
  • Smirnoff Spin
  • Smirnoff Storm

Asia-Pacific[edit]

Partnership with Fraser & Neave[edit]

Heineken and Fraser & Neave set up Malayan Breweries in 1931.[27] In 1990, Malayan Breweries changed to its present name, Asia Pacific Breweries (APB) and acquired 90% of DB Breweries in 2004.[28]

Asia Pacific Breweries[edit]

Launched in 1932, Tiger Beer became Singapore's first locally brewed beer.[citation needed] It is a 5% abv bottled pale lager. As APB's exclusive flagship brand, it is available in more than 60 countries worldwide.

Reeb is a brand of beer produced by Asia Pacific Breweries. Reeb is "beer" spelled backwards. Its Chinese brand name is 力波啤酒. The first two characters 力波 (meaning "strong wave", pronounced libo) are the closest pronunciation there is in Chinese to Reeb. Reeb's distribution is primarily in the Shanghai area.[29]

DB Breweries[edit]

Tui beer

DB Breweries is a New Zealand brewing company founded in 1930 by Sir Henry Kelliher and Morton Coutts in Otahuhu.[30] Asia Pacific Breweries acquired 90% of DB Breweries in 2004.

There are several beers produced under the DB brand,[31] including DB Draught, a 4% amber coloured lager;Export Gold a 4% pale lager

Export Gold was first brewed as DB Export as a result of the "Black Budget" from then Minister of Finance Arnold Nordmeyer which imposed extremely high duty on imported premium lagers, though the extent to which the 'black budget' influenced the creation of DB Export is currently under dispute.[32] DB Export was initially brewed as a 5.4% premium lager and with "Export" in the title to compete with international premium lagers. In 1994, the name was changed from DB Export to DB Export Gold, and in 1998 to simply Export Gold.

Tui Brewery[edit]

The Tui Brewery was established in 1889 in Mangatainoka in the Wairarapa region of North Island New Zealand by Henry Wagstaff and Edward Lyons Russell; it was taken over by DB Breweries in 1969. The brewery tower is shown in advertising campaigns for Tui Beer which feature a statement, such as "War will bring peace" followed by the dismissive tag line "Yeah right". Tui East India Pale Ale (Tui), a 4% amber lager, is the main brand.[citation needed]

Monteith's[edit]

Monteith's Brewery Company was originally a family-owned brewery on New Zealand's South Island West coast. DB Breweries bought it and closed its Greymouth brewery in 2001; this was since reopened, however, and production also takes place at Auckland.[33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Leezenberg, Michiel (2001). Contexts of metaphor – Google Books. ISBN 9780080438818. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
  2. ^ James, Frank (3 July 2009). "Obama Beer Photo Op Now White House History". NPR. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  3. ^ Boli, Bill (25 September 2015). "Buckler Non-Alcoholic Beer" (PDF). The Beer Library. Retrieved 13 August 2020.
  4. ^ * "President George W Bush beer lover".
  5. ^ "Heineken in Italia". Mondo Birra. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  6. ^ "Birreria di Pedavena – The history". Birreriapedavena.info. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  7. ^ "Birra Moretti (Heineken)". Ratebeer.com. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  8. ^ "Brouwerij Affligem / De Smedt (Heineken)".
  9. ^ "Dutch Breweries (and all the beers they brew)". Xs4all.nl. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  10. ^ "Heineken Nederland". Ratebeer.com. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  11. ^ "Бочкарев". Bochkarev.ru. Archived from the original on 1 March 2000. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  12. ^ "King of the Norse gods". The Economist. 8 January 2015. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  13. ^ "The St. Petersburg Times – Top Stories – Heineken Seals $400M Bravo Deal". Sptimes.ru. 5 February 2002. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  14. ^ NEWEurope (1 March 2003). "Bravo International to be renamed Heineken Brewery". New Europe. Retrieved 3 October 2019.
  15. ^ Flören, Roberto Hans; Jansen, S.F. (2007). Ondernemerschap en het familiebedrijf : de tien oudste familiebedrijven van Nederland [Entrepreneurship and Family Business: The Ten Oldest Families of the Netherlands]. Accountant & familiebedrijf (in Dutch). Wolters Kluwer. p. 37. ISBN 978-9-0130-4749-3. OCLC 212250325. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  16. ^ "Dutch Breweries (and all the beers they brew)". Europeanbeerguide.net. 2 January 2007. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  17. ^ Contributor (6 December 2018). "Heineken buys majority stake in Spanish craft brewer La Cibeles". FoodBev Media. Retrieved 3 October 2019. {{cite web}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  18. ^ "Heineken acquires Krusovice Brewery in Czech Republic". EuroInvestor.co.uk. 1 June 2007. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  19. ^ Brian Glover, The Complete Handbook of Beers and Brewing, 2003, p189
  20. ^ "Skopsko Svetlo Pivo from Pivara Skopje (Heineken), a Pale Lager style beer: An unofficial page for Skopsko Svetlo Pivo from Pivara Skopje (Heineken) in Skopje, North Macedonia". Ratebeer.com. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  21. ^ "Pivovarna Zagorka (Heineken)". Ratebeer.com. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  22. ^ "The Breweries of Slovakia and all the beers they brew". Europeanbeerguide.net. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  23. ^ "Zlaty Bazant (Heineken)". Ratebeer.com. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  24. ^ Foda, Omar. "Egypt's beer industry toasts long history". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 13 December 2016.
  25. ^ "Al Ahram (Heineken)". Ratebeer.com. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  26. ^ "Sedibeng brewery comes on stream – Mail & Guardian Online". Mail & Guardian. 2 March 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  27. ^ "Asia Pacific Breweries Limited – Company History". Fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  28. ^ "Asia Pacific completes takeover of DB Breweries". Modern Brewery Age. 2004.
  29. ^ "Reeb Tavern – English history of Reeb Beer". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007.
  30. ^ "Sir Henry Kelliher". 6 September 1997. Archived from the original on 9 December 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
  31. ^ "DB Breweries (Asia Pacific Breweries-Heineken)". Ratebeer.com. Retrieved 24 September 2012.
  32. ^ "DB ordered to pull 'Black Budget' beer ads". The New Zealand Herald. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
  33. ^ "Heineken-owned DB buys Tuatara for undisclosed sum". 31 January 2017.

Further reading[edit]

  • Foda, Omar D. Egypt's Beer: Stella, Identity, and the Modern State (U of Texas Press, 2019). online review