Heinrich Setz

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Heinrich Setz
Heinrich Setz.jpg
Heinrich Setz
Born (1915-03-12)12 March 1915
Gundelsdorf near Kronach
Died 13 March 1943(1943-03-13) (aged 28)
near Le Tréport, France
Buried war cemetery at Bourdon, France
block 32—row 11—grave 427
Allegiance  Nazi Germany
Service/branch Balkenkreuz (Iron Cross) Luftwaffe
Years of service 1936–43
Rank Major (posthumous)
Unit JG 77, JG 27
Commands held 4./JG 77, I./JG 27
Battles/wars
Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves
Relations Franz Ruhl (brother in law)

Heinrich Setz (12 March 1915 – 13 March 1943) was a German Luftwaffe military aviator during World War II, a fighter ace credited with 138 enemy aircraft shot down in 274 combat missions. The majority of his victories were claimed over the Eastern Front, with six claims over the Western Front.

Born in Gundelsdorf, Setz volunteered for military service in the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany in 1936. Following flight training and a period at a fighter pilot training school as an instructor, he was posted to Jagdgeschwader 77 (JG 77—77th Fighter Wing) in 1940. Following the Norwegian Campaign he claimed his first three aerial victories in late 1940 in that theater. In July 1941, Setz was appointed Staffelkapitän (squadron leader) of the 4. Staffel (4th squadron) of JG 77 which he led in Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union. Following his 43rd aerial victory he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 31 December 1941 and the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves on 23 June 1942 after 81 victories. He claimed his 100th aerial victory on 24 July 1942.

In February 1943 Setz was appointed Gruppenkommandeur (group commander) of the I. Gruppe (1st group) of Jagdgeschwader 27 (JG 27—27th Fighter Wing) which was based in France on the Western Front. Setz claimed three more victories before he was killed in action on his 274th combat mission in a midair collision with a Supermarine Spitfire on 13 March 1943.

Early life and career[edit]

Setz was born on 12 March 1915 in Gundelsdorf near Kronach, Upper Franconia in the Kingdom of Bavaria. He was the son of a Oberförster (head of a forest range) and joined the military service of the Luftwaffe as a Fahnenjunker (cadet) on 6 April 1936. He was promoted to Leutnant (second lieutenant) on 1 January 1938. On 1 July 1938, he was posted to Jagdgeschwader 135 (135th Fighter Wing).[Note 1] From April 1939 onwards he was posted to a Jagdfliegerschule (fighter pilot training school) as an instructor. On 3 April 1940 he was transferred to Jagdfliegerschule 3 at Stolp-Reitz, present day Redzikowo in Poland. There he was promoted to Oberleutnant (first lieutenant) on 1 June 1940.[1]

World War II[edit]

World War II in Europe began on Friday 1 September 1939 when German forces invaded Poland. Setz was transferred to a front-line unit when he joined II. Gruppe (2nd group) of Jagdgeschwader 77 (JG 77—77th Fighter Wing) on 28 June 1940.[1] There he was assigned to the 6. Staffel (6th squadron) of JG 77 on 1 July 1940.[2] JG 77 at the time was based at Kristiansand, in southern Norway. He claimed three aerial victories in this theater, his first aerial victory, a Royal Air Force (RAF) No. 82 Squadron Bristol Blenheim bomber, was shot down south of Stavanger over Norway's west coast on 27 August 1940.[3] This achievement earned him the Iron Cross 2nd Class (Eisernes Kreuz 2. Klasse) on 12 September 1940. Following two further victories over Norway, he received Iron Cross 1st Class (Eisernes Kreuz 1. Klasse) on 18 October 1940.[1] In May 1941, Setz was appointed Staffelkapitän (squadron leader) of 4. Staffel of 2. (Schul.)/ Ergänzungs-Gruppe of JG 77, a supplementary training group for new pilots posted to the front.[4]

Eastern Front[edit]

Following the Invasion of Yugoslavia, JG 77 was moved to Romania in preparation for Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941. II. and III. Gruppe, plus the Stab (headquarters unit), of JG 77 supported the German advance as part of Heeresgruppe Süd (Army Group South).[5] On 21 June, II. Gruppe was ordered from Bucharest to Roman, a forward airfield near the Siret river. [6] That evening, the pilots and ground crews were briefed of the upcoming invasion of the Soviet Union, which opened the Eastern Front.[7] In late June or early July, Setz succeeded Hauptmann Walter Jänisch as Staffelkapitän of 4. Staffel of JG 77.[1][4] There, he claimed his first aerial victory on the Eastern Front, his fourth in total, on a Junkers Ju 87 dive bomber escort mission to Kamianets-Podilskyi. He shot down a Polikarpov I-16 fighter aircraft.[8] On 21 July, II. Gruppe flew thirteen combat missions providing fighter protection for the bridges crossing the Dniester in the vicinity of Yampol. That day, Setz claimed two I-16 fighters shot down. On the twelfth mission, which started at 18:18 from Bălți, Setz himself was shot down in his Messerschmitt Bf 109 E (Werknummer 1384—factory number), resulting in a forced landing. [9] At the time, the architect of the Holocaust Reinhard Heydrich, who was holding the rank of Major der Reserve (major of the military reserves) within the Luftwaffe, served together with Setz in II. Gruppe of JG 77.[10]

Setz claimed his 30th victory on 29 October 1941 and less than a month later, on 21 November, he shot down his 40th opponent.[1] On 27 November 1941, Setz claimed claimed three aerial victories in combat south of Rostov-on-Don. A Polikarpov I-153 biplane fighter and two Tupolev SB-2 bombers took his total to 45, his last victories in 1941. [11] On 3 December 1941, II. Gruppe was withdrawn from combat operations and moved to Vienna-Aspern for reequipment with the Bf 109 F-4.[12] Setz was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) on 31 December 1941.[2] By end 1941, 4. Staffel had been credited with 110 aerial victories and further 89 aircraft destroyed on the ground under his leadership.[1]

Crimea and Caucasus[edit]

On 11 March 1942, II. Gruppe began relocating back to the Eastern Front, at first to Proskuriv where it stayed for a few days,[13] and then to Sarabuz on the Crimea, arriving on 17 March 1942.[14] Here he became an "ace-in-a-day" on 19 March 1942, claiming his 46th to 50th aerial victory during the Siege of Sevastopol.[1] That day, he was credited with shooting down two Petlyakov Pe-2 ground attack aircraft, two Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-3 fighter aircraft and one Ilyushin DB-3 bomber.[15] Setz claimed three Yakovlev Yak-7 fighters on 21 April over Prymorskyi.[16] On 13 May 1942, he claimed three further victories, two Yakovlev Yak-1 fighters and one Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3 fighters, taking his total to 70 victories.[17] Following his 81st victory on 23 June, a Polikarpov I-153 fighter,[18] Setz was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes mit Eichenlaub) on the same day.[2] The award was presented at the Führerhauptquartier (Führer Headquarters) at Rastenburg on 28/29 June 1942.[1] Two other Luftwaffe officers were presented with the Oak Leaves that day by Hitler, the night-fighter pilot Hauptmann (captain) Helmut Lent and fellow JG 77 pilot Oberleutnant Friedrich Geißhardt.[19]

Following his return to the front, JG 77 was assigned to the newly created Army Group B in support of Fall Blau (Case Blue), the Wehrmacht's 1942 strategic summer offensive in southern Russia.[20] On 5 July 1942, II./JG 77 was based at Kastornoje, approximately 75 kilometres (47 miles) west of Voronezh, where it fought in the Battle of Voronezh.[21] Setz briefly commanded II./JG 77 in July for Gruppenkommandeur (group commander) Anton Mader.[22] He claimed two MiG-3s on 23 July 1942.[23] On the next day, 24 July, he reached his 100th aerial victory. He was the 13th Luftwaffe pilot to achieve the century mark.[24] This achievement earned him German Cross in Gold (Deutsches Kreuz in Gold) which was awarded to him on 21 August 1942. [1] On 16 September, Setz, for the second time, became an "ace-in-a-day" after he claimed the destruction of three Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3 fighter aircraft and two Ilyushin Il-2 ground-attack aircraft, taking his total to 133 aerial victories.[25] Setz's 4. Staffel was then reequipped with the Bf 109 G-2 and transferred to an airfield at Stary Oskol on 23 September 1942.[26] On 2 October, 4. And 6. Staffel flew a fighter escort mission for a flight of Heinkel He 111 bombers attacking Soviet positions north of Voronezh.[27] On this mission, Setz claimed two LaGG-3, his last victories on the Eastern Front. This took his total to 135 aerial victories.[28] Setz was promoted to Hauptmann on 1 November 1942.[1] On 7 November 1942, II. Gruppe received orders from Generalmajor Alfred Bülowius, the commander of the 1. Flieger-Division (1st Air Division), to relocate to the North African theater of operations.[29]

Western Front and death[edit]

Setz however did not rejoin his unit. On 12 November he was appointed the new Gruppenkommandeur of I. Gruppe (1st group) of Jagdgeschwader 27 (JG 27—27th Fighter Wing), to replace Hauptmann (Captain) Gerhard Homuth who had to resign the command because of illness. This unit had formerly led the assault in North Africa but after being shattered in the recent battles around El Alamein had been pulled back for rest and rebuild. Setz took over his command in Bari, Italy on 20 November 1942,[30] and soon led the transferal back to Krefeld in Germany, where they arrived on 28 November 1942.

After a brief period of recreation, the group began preparations for a transfer to France on 2 January 1943. The Stab (headquarter unit), 1st and 3rd Staffel transferred to Evreux on 31 January 1943[31] The remaining groups followed and new pilots and new Bf 109 G-4 joined the group. Now fighting a completely different type of air-war, versus the big box-formations of bombers of the American 8th Air Force, Setz had the entire group conduct training flights and reported operational readiness on 20 February 1943.[32]

On 13 March 1943, on his 274th combat mission, he claimed two Supermarine Spitfires from the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) No. 127 Wing in five minutes over Abbeville, but it is believed he was killed when he collided with a third fifteen minutes later at high altitude. His Bf-109 G-4 (Werknummer 14 862—factory number) crashed at Yzengremer, 11 kilometres (6.8 miles) east of Le Tréport.[33] In recognition of his leadership, he was posthumously promoted to Major (major), backdated to 1 March 1943.[34] Setz, who was the brother in law of Franz Ruhl, was interred at the German war cemetery in Bourdon, France in block 32, row 11, grave 427.[35]

Summary of career[edit]

Aerial victory claims[edit]

Setz was credited with 138 enemy aircraft shot down in 274 combat missions, of which 132 were claimed over the Eastern Front, with 3 during the invasion of Norway and 3 over the Western Front in defense of the Reich.[2]

  This and the ♠ (Ace of spades) indicates those aerial victories which made Setz an "ace-in-a-day", a term which designates a fighter pilot who has shot down five or more airplanes in a single day.
  This and the – (dash) indicates unconfirmed aerial victory claims for which Setz did not receive credit.

Chronicle of aerial victories
Victory Date Time Type Location Unit Victory Date Time Type Location Unit
– Claims with Jagdgeschwader 77 in Norway –[36]
Operation Weserübung — April – November 1940
1 27 August 1940 Blenheim 6./JG 77 3 20 October 1940 10:23 Blenheim 6./JG 77
2 9 September 1940 14:10 Skua 6./JG 77
– Claims with Jagdgeschwader 77 on the Eastern Front –[37]
Operation Barbarossa — June – December 1941
4 5 July 1941 I-16 4./JG 77 25 15 October 1941 SB-2 4./JG 77
5 15 July 1941 I-16 4./JG 77 26 15 October 1941 unknown 4./JG 77
6 15 July 1941 I-16 4./JG 77 27 15 October 1941 unknown 4./JG 77
7 21 July 1941 I-16 4./JG 77 28 19 October 1941 I-16 4./JG 77
8 21 July 1941 I-16 4./JG 77 29 23 October 1941 Il-2 4./JG 77
9 8 August 1941 I-16 4./JG 77 30 29 October 1941 I-61 4./JG 77
10 10 August 1941 I-16 4./JG 77 31 29 October 1941 I-61 4./JG 77
11 14 August 1941 I-153 4./JG 77 32 31 October 1941 I-16 4./JG 77
12 21 August 1941 I-16 4./JG 77 33 8 November 1941 I-153 4./JG 77
13 28 August 1941 R-Z 4./JG 77 34 8 November 1941 I-16 4./JG 77
14 29 August 1941 I-16 4./JG 77 35 8 November 1941 I-16 4./JG 77
15 31 August 1941 I-26 4./JG 77 36 14 November 1941 DB-3 4./JG 77
16 10 September 1941 MiG-3 4./JG 77 37 14 November 1941 DB-3 4./JG 77
17 14 September 1941 I-16 4./JG 77 38 20 November 1941 SB-2 4./JG 77
18 19 September 1941 I-61 4./JG 77 39 20 November 1941 SB-2 4./JG 77
19 26 September 1941 I-16 4./JG 77 40 21 November 1941 Il-2 4./JG 77
20 26 September 1941 MiG-3 4./JG 77 41 23 November 1941 I-16 4./JG 77
21 28 September 1941 Il-2 4./JG 77 42 24 November 1941 I-16 4./JG 77
22 1 October 1941 Il-2 4./JG 77 43 27 November 1941 I-153 4./JG 77
23 9 October 1941 16:18 Il-2 4./JG 77 44 27 November 1941 SB-2 4./JG 77
24 10 October 1941 I-153 4./JG 77 45 27 November 1941 SB-2 4./JG 77
– Claims with Jagdgeschwader 77 on the Eastern Front –[38]
December 1941 – April 1942
46♠ 19 March 1942 Pe-2 4./JG 77 54 9 April 1942 Mig-3 4./JG 77
47♠ 19 March 1942 Pe-2 4./JG 77 55 9 April 1942 I-153 4./JG 77
48♠ 19 March 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77 56 10 April 1942 I-153 4./JG 77
49♠ 19 March 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77 57 18 April 1942 I-16 4./JG 77
50♠ 19 March 1942 DB-3 4./JG 77 58 21 April 1942 Yak-7 4./JG 77
51 27 March 1942 I-16 4./JG 77 59 21 April 1942 Yak-7 4./JG 77
52 27 March 1942 I-61 4./JG 77 60 21 April 1942 Yak-7 4./JG 77
53 9 April 1942 I-16 4./JG 77 61 30 April 1942 MiG-1 4./JG 77
– Claims with Jagdgeschwader 77 on the Eastern Front –[39]
Kerch, Sevastopol, Izium — May/June 1942
62 1 May 1942 I-16 4./JG 77 72 17 May 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77
63 1 May 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77 73 23 May 1942 I-16 4./JG 77
64 3 May 1942 I-153 4./JG 77 74 9 June 1942 I-16 4./JG 77
65 8 May 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77 75 9 June 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77
66 9 May 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77 76 11 June 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
67 9 May 1942 I-153 4./JG 77 77 13 June 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77
68 13 May 1942 Yak-1 4./JG 77 78 15 June 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77
69 13 May 1942 Yak-1 4./JG 77 79 17 June 1942 Yak-1 4./JG 77
70 13 May 1942 Yak-1 4./JG 77 80 19 June 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
71 17 May 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77 81 23 June 1942 I-153 4./JG 77
– Claims with Jagdgeschwader 77 on the Eastern Front –[40]
28 June – 7 November 1942
82 9 July 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77 110 3 August 1942 18:50 Il-2 4./JG 77
83 10 July 1942 Yak-1 4./JG 77 111 6 August 1942 18:14 P-39 4./JG 77
84 10 July 1942 Yak-1 4./JG 77 112 6 August 1942 18:15 P-39 4./JG 77
85 10 July 1942 Yak-1 4./JG 77
6 August 1942 18:16 P-39 4./JG 77
86 11 July 1942 unknown 4./JG 77 113 12 August 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
87 12 July 1942 unknown 4./JG 77 114 12 August 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
88 13 July 1942 unknown 4./JG 77 115 12 August 1942 Yak-1 4./JG 77
89 14 July 1942 Il-2 4./JG 77 116 13 August 1942 Pe-2 4./JG 77
90 14 July 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77 117 13 August 1942 Pe-2 4./JG 77
91 18 July 1942 Pe-2 4./JG 77 118 13 August 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77
92 18 July 1942 Pe-2 4./JG 77 119 18 August 1942 unknown 4./JG 77
93 18 July 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77 120 21 August 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
94 21 July 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77 121 21 August 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
95 23 July 1942 Il-2 4./JG 77 122 23 August 1942 Boston 4./JG 77
96 23 July 1942 Il-2 4./JG 77 123 23 August 1942 Boston 4./JG 77
97 23 July 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77 124 23 August 1942 Boston 4./JG 77
98 23 July 1942 MiG-3 4./JG 77 125 5 September 1942 Il-2 4./JG 77
99 24 July 1942 Yak-1 4./JG 77 126 5 September 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
100 24 July 1942 Yak-1 4./JG 77 127 5 September 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
101 26 July 1942 Yak-7 4./JG 77 128 15 September 1942 Il-2 4./JG 77
102 26 July 1942 Yak-7 4./JG 77 129♠ 16 September 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
103 26 July 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77 130♠ 16 September 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
104 26 July 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77 131♠ 16 September 1942 Il-2 4./JG 77
105 27 July 1942 Hurricane 4./JG 77 132♠ 16 September 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
106 28 July 1942 07:41 Il-2 4./JG 77 133♠ 16 September 1942 06:41 Il-2 4./JG 77
107 28 July 1942 07:46 LaGG-3 4./JG 77 134 2 October 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
108 28 July 1942 15:12 Boston 4./JG 77 135 2 October 1942 LaGG-3 4./JG 77
109 28 July 1942 15:16 Boston 4./JG 77
– Claims with Jagdgeschwader 27 in defense of the Reich –[41]
March 1943
136 13 March 1943 15:10 Spitfire 20 km (12 mi) southwest Poix-de-Picardie Stab I./JG 27 138 13 March 1943 15:31 Spitfire 10 km (6.2 mi) south Gamaches Stab I./JG 27
137 13 March 1943 15:14 Spitfire 8 km (5.0 mi) north Neufchâtel-en-Bray Stab I./JG 27

Awards[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For an explanation of Luftwaffe unit designations, see Organization of the Luftwaffe during World War II.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Stockert 2012, p. 3.
  2. ^ a b c d Obermaier 1989, p. 51.
  3. ^ Weal 1996, p. 39.
  4. ^ a b Prien 1995, p. 2377.
  5. ^ Prien 1993, p. 628.
  6. ^ Prien 1993, p. 630.
  7. ^ Prien 1993, p. 632.
  8. ^ Prien 1993, pp. 666–667.
  9. ^ Prien 1993, pp. 707–708.
  10. ^ Prien 1993, pp. 704, 710.
  11. ^ Prien 1993, p. 863.
  12. ^ Prien 1993, p. 869.
  13. ^ Prien 1993, p. 930.
  14. ^ Prien 1993, p. 941.
  15. ^ Prien 1993, p. 944.
  16. ^ Prien 1993, p. 969.
  17. ^ Prien 1993, p. 1006.
  18. ^ Prien 1993, p. 1075.
  19. ^ Prien 1993, p. 1090.
  20. ^ Prien 1993, p. 1104.
  21. ^ Prien 1993, p. 1106.
  22. ^ Prien 1993, p. 1112.
  23. ^ Bergström et al. 2006, p. 36.
  24. ^ Obermaier 1989, p. 243.
  25. ^ Prien 1993, p. 1177.
  26. ^ Prien 1993, p. 1183.
  27. ^ Prien 1993, p. 1185.
  28. ^ Prien 1993, p. 1186.
  29. ^ Prien 1993, p. 1191.
  30. ^ Prien, Rodeike & Stemmer 1998, p. 314.
  31. ^ Prien, Rodeike & Stemmer 1998, p. 319.
  32. ^ Prien, Rodeike & Stemmer 1998, p. 321.
  33. ^ Prien, Rodeike & Stemmer 1998, p. 545.
  34. ^ Prien, Rodeike & Stemmer 1998, p. 322.
  35. ^ Stockert 2012, p. 4.
  36. ^ Prien 1995, p. 2380.
  37. ^ Prien 1995, pp. 2387–2398.
  38. ^ Prien 1995, pp. 2401–2404.
  39. ^ Prien 1995, pp. 2404–2409.
  40. ^ Prien 1995, pp. 2411–2419.
  41. ^ Prien, Rodeike & Stemmer 1998, p. 571.
  42. ^ a b Thomas 1998, p. 317.
  43. ^ Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 442.
  44. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 702.
  45. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 399.
  46. ^ Von Seemen 1976, p. 318.
  47. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 60.
  48. ^ Von Seemen 1976, p. 29.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bergström, Christer; Mikhailov, Andrey (2001). Black Cross / Red Star Air War Over the Eastern Front, Volume II, Resurgence January–June 1942. Pacifica, California: Pacifica Military History. ISBN 978-0-935553-51-2. 
  • Bergström, Christer; Dikov, Andrey; Antipov, Vlad; Sundin, Claes (2006). Black Cross / Red Star Air War Over the Eastern Front, Volume 3, Everything for Stalingrad. Hamilton MT: Eagle Editions. ISBN 978-0-9761034-4-8. 
  • Bergström, Christer (2007). Stalingrad – The Air Battle: November 1942 – February 1943. London, UK: Chervron/Ian Allan. ISBN 978-1-85780-276-4. 
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) [1986]. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 — The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Obermaier, Ernst (1989). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe Jagdflieger 1939 – 1945 [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Luftwaffe Fighter Force 1939 – 1945] (in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN 978-3-87341-065-7. 
  • Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8. 
  • Prien, Jochen (1993). Geschichte des Jagdgeschwaders 77—Teil 2—1941–1942 [History of Jagdgeschwader 77—Volume 2—1941–1942] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-22-9. 
  • Prien, Jochen (1995). Geschichte des Jagdgeschwaders 77—Teil 4—1944–1945 [History of Jagdgeschwader 77—Volume 4—1944–1945] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-29-8. 
  • Prien, Jochen; Rodeike, Peter; Stemmer, Gerhard (1998). Messerschmidt Bf 109 im Einsatz bei Stab und I./Jagdgeschwader 27 1939 – 1945 [Messerschmidt Bf 109 in Action with the Headquarter Unit and I./Jagdgeschwader 27 in 1939 – 1945] (in German). Eutin, Germany: Struve-Druck. ISBN 978-3-923457-46-5. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Spick, Mike (1996). Luftwaffe Fighter Aces. New York: Ivy Books. ISBN 978-0-8041-1696-1. 
  • Stockert, Peter (2012) [1997]. Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2 [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2] (in German) (4th ed.). Bad Friedrichshall, Germany: Friedrichshaller Rundblick. ISBN 978-3-9802222-9-7. 
  • Thomas, Franz (1998). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2: L–Z [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2: L–Z] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2300-9. 
  • Von Seemen, Gerhard (1976). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 : die Ritterkreuzträger sämtlicher Wehrmachtteile, Brillanten-, Schwerter- und Eichenlaubträger in der Reihenfolge der Verleihung : Anhang mit Verleihungsbestimmungen und weiteren Angaben [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 : The Knight's Cross Bearers of All the Armed Services, Diamonds, Swords and Oak Leaves Bearers in the Order of Presentation: Appendix with Further Information and Presentation Requirements] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7909-0051-4. 
  • Weal, John (1996). Bf109D/E Aces 1939–41. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-487-9. 
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  • Weal, John (2001). Bf 109 Aces of the Russian Front. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-084-1. 
  • Weal, John (2003). Jagdgeschwader 27 'Afrika'. London, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-538-9. 
Military offices
Preceded by
none: new unit
Squadron Leader of 2.(Schul.)/Erg.Gruppe JG 77
March, 1941 – 6 August 1941
Succeeded by
Oblt Hans Brockmann
Preceded by
Hptm Walter Jänisch
Squadron Leader of 4./JG 77
6 August 1941 – 11 November 1942
Succeeded by
Ltn Lutz-Wilhelm Burckhardt
Preceded by
Hptm Gerhard Homuth
Group Commander of I./JG 27
12 November 1942 – 13 March 1943
Succeeded by
Hptm Erich Hohagen