Heinz Rökker

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Heinz Rökker
HeinzRoekker.jpg
Born (1920-10-20) 20 October 1920 (age 96)
Oldenburg, Germany
Allegiance  Nazi Germany (to 1945)
 West Germany
Service/branch Balkenkreuz (Iron Cross) Luftwaffe
Bundeswehrkreuz (Iron Cross) German Air Force
Years of service 1939–45
Rank Hauptmann (Wehrmacht)
Hauptmann of the Reserves (Bundeswehr)
Unit NJG 2
Battles/wars

World War II

Awards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves

Heinz Rökker (born 20 October 1920) is a former night fighter pilot in the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany during World War II. He was a recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves. The Knight's Cross (German: Ritterkreuz), and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany during World War II. He claimed 64 enemy aircraft (63 at night) shot down, all were British bombers. Rökker was the eighth most successful night fighter pilot in the history of aerial warfare.[1]

Early life[edit]

Herbartgymnasiums, formerly the Hindenburg school in Oldenburg

Rökker was born on 20 October 1920 in Oldenburg, in the Free State of Oldenburg of the Weimar Germany. At the age of 19 he passed his Kriegsabitur (war time diploma, a school leaving certificate under accelerated conditions) at the Hindenburg School on Oldenburg and applied to join the Luftwaffe. Rökker was accepted as an officer candidate and entered the Luftwaffe on 1 October 1939, 19 days before his 19th birthday and one month after the German invasion of Poland and the start of World War II in Europe. He was assigned to 4 staffel of the 22 Flieger-Ausbild Regiment (4th Squadron of the 22nd Pilot Training Regiment) at Güstrow. Rökker then moved to the Fliegerhorstkompanie Wenzendorf (Airfield Company Wenzendorf) on 13 November 1939.[2]

On 14 January 1940 Rökker was transferred to the Luft-Nachschub-Kompanie 5 (5th Aerial Replacement Company) stationed in Gütersloh. From 4 July 1940, he was stationed at Berlin-Gatow with the Schülerkompanie Flugzeugführer-schule (School Company at Advanced Flying School). Rökker was promoted to Gefreiter on 1 October 1940. He then completed advanced training at a flying school near Magdeburg from 20 March—15 August 1941.[2] Rökker attended Blindflugschule 5 in Belgrade, occupied Yugoslavia, from 15 September before completing his training at Nachtjagdschule 1, near Munich on 1 November 1941. During his advanced training, on 1 May and 1 August respectively, he was promoted to the rank of Fähnrich and Oberfähnrich. [3][2]

World War II[edit]

Mediterranean and Egypt[edit]

Rökker was then posted to 1 staffel (squadron), Nachtjagdgeschwader 2 (NJG 2—Night Fighter Wing 2) operating in the Mediterranean theatre on 6 May 1942. He remained with this wing until war's end.[Note 1] Carlos Nugent was also posted to 1./NJG 2 in May 1942 and became Rökker's Bordfunker (wireless/radar operator). The unit was located to Catania in Sicily, Italy. From there, it transported to North Africa by ship and was based in Libya. After flying 25 missions Rökker was awarded the Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe in Bronze on 17 June 1942.[4]

On 31 May 1942 Rökker's Junkers Ju 88 was damaged by anti-aircraft artillery from Allied shipping he crash landed at Kastelli, on Crete. 20 days later, Rökker shot down a Royal Air Force (RAF) Bristol Beaufort by day on 20 June 1942, near Crete.[5] The time was recorded as 17:20 local time.[6] His aircraft received several hits from return fire during the action, but he landed safely.[3][4] Rökker's victim was Beaufort DD959, No. 217 Squadron RAF piloted by Flying Officer Frank J. R. Minster and crewed by Sergeant W. A. R. King, J Moschonas and A. Bowyer. All of these men were posted missing in action and were never found.[7] Rökker began night intruder missions in June and over British lines in Africa. Over Mersa Matruh, Egypt, on the night of the 25/26 June 1942 he engaged a Vickers Wellington southwest of the city and shot it down at 22:45. He attacked and claimed another at 00:09.[8]

On the night of the 28/29 June at 23:58 he encountered another Wellington which he claimed for fourth victory.[9] The machine was R1029, of No. 108 Squadron RAF, which he damaged severely and which was destroyed in a crash-landing. Rökker's Ju 88C was severely damaged and he was also forced to crash-land. Squadron leader D. H. Jacklin, DFC and his crew, survived.[10] Rökker was awarded the Iron Cross second class and Wound Badge after the battle on 3 and 14 July 1942 respectively.[4]

On 28 July, Rökker achieved his last victory in Africa. East of Tobruk at 23:10 he shot down another Wellington for his fifth victory.[11] The aircraft was Wellington HX364, from No. 70 Squadron RAF. Pilot Sergeant H. Osborne and his crew survived ditching in the sea, were rescued by an Italian ship the Lino Bixo and taken prisoner. However, gunners K. Hatch, E. A. Jones, K. S. McDonald subsequently drowned when the vessel was sunk by a Royal Navy submarine off Greece on 17 August 1942.[10]

Although 1./NJG 2 was briefly relocated to Belgium on 4 August 1942, reaching northern Europe on 5 August, the staffel was relocated back to the Mediterranean theatre based in Sicily on 9 February 1943. During his time in Belgium Rökker was responsible for the air defence of Belgium and northern France. On 14 August 1942 he was awarded the Iron Cross first class for 50 missions and five victories but he achieved no further success in that region.[4] In that period Rokker had been appointed staffelkapitan, on 15 December 1942.[3]

In April 1943, Rökker achieved his last victory over the southern fronts when he shot down a Wellington at 01:15 on 19 April 1943 over Marettimo, Aegadian Islands, west of Sicily.[12] The machine was certainly HX487, of No. 221 Squadron RAF based at RAF Luqa on Malta. Squadron leader Michael Foulis, DFC and Bar was lost with nine other men. It was possibly on a transfer that day, explaining why so many men were aboard. Of the nine men reported killed, four had previously flown with Foulis on torpedo operations.[13]

Defence of the Reich[edit]

In July 1943, 1./NJG 2 were back in Europe to undertake Reichsverteidigung (Defence of the Reich) duties. On 2 July he flew his last operation in the south and NJG 2 relocated back northwest Europe.[4] Rökker claimed his next victories on 24 August 1943 southwest of Berlin at 00:35 and 0:50, a Lancaster and Halifax, for his seventh and eighth.[14] On 1 December 1943 Rökker was promoted to Oberleutnant. The following month he was awarded the Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe in Gold for 100 night fighter operations.[4] In February 1944 Rökker claimed two successes over Berlin as Bomber Command began a five-month campaign against the German capital. On the 24 February 1944 Rökker recorded a Short Stirling at 22:43 south of Heilbronn. The following night he claimed a Lancaster at 21:43, west of Hagenau.[15]

Rökker claimed three victories on the night of 15/16 March 1944. At 22:26, west of Stuttgart, Rökker and his radar operator detected a Lancaster[16] with the FuG 350 Naxos radar detector system, which picked up the emissions of HS2 radar installed in RAF bombers. Using the front, rather than Schräge Musik armament, he shot down three bombers. One was flown by Squadron leader R. Backwell-Smith from No. 9 Squadron RAF. Rökker decided to repeat an attack with the frontal guns. The Ju 88 was spotted and Backwell-Smith dived and carried out the corkscrew, a stand British bomber evasion tactic. In the turning fight that began, Rökker was assisted by his radar operator who opened fire with the hand-held defensive guns. Rear turret gunner Australian Flight Sergeant Eric Birrell did not fire, either because he was killed in action or the hydraulics and been damaged and the turret would not operate. Upper turret gunner Sergeant Brian Glover returned fire but missed. Radio operator Ronald West was killed and Flying Officer Herbert Sheasbey, navigator Pilot Officer Douglas Eley, the Canadian bomb-aimer, did not survive their parachute jumps.[17] The successes were recorded southwest of Strasbourg at 22:26, west of Hagenau at 22:35, and west of Stuttgart at 22:55.[18]

On 22/23 March and 24/25 March 1944 he claimed three shot down on each night. On the first night of these operations he shot down the Handley Page Halifax flown by Richard Atkins from No. 578 Squadron RAF over Steinringsberg near Herborn at 22:35. Atkins was the only pilot of the squadron to reach the last mission of his tour. This night he was joined by Group captain Nigel Marwood-Elton DFC. Another member of the crew was Flight sergeant, Eric Sanderson the tail gunner. Sanderson saw Rökker's Ju 88 "slide" underneath his turret and he called to the pilot to take evasive action. At one point he told the pilot to bank the bomber so the upper-mid gunner could fire down at the Ju 88 but Sanderson reported the Ju 88 remained below and behind them before firing and hitting the bomb bay and fuel tanks in the wings. All eight men parachuted clear and survived the encounter. In his combat report, Rökker mentioned Atkins by name (presumably having learned it from intelligence reports).[19] On the latter night he shot down the Lancaster II "D-King" flown by Flight Sergeant Jim Newman at 23:20 between Leipzig and Berlin.[20][Note 2] One of the crew, Nicholas Alkemade survived a free fall from a burning parachute. Engineer Edgar Warren, bomb-aimer Charles Hilder, and mid-upper gunner John McDonough were burned to death in the aircraft.[22] The three bombers reported destroyed on 22/23 March were recorded south of Aurich at 21:30, and in the vicinity of Koblenz at 22:27 and 22:35.[23] The other two 24/25 March claims were reported over Bernburg at 23:20 and east of Kassel at 23:48 for his 20th victory.[24] Over the course of April and May 1944 Rökker achieved another seven victories over western Germany, eastern Belgium and Netherlands included three on the 12 May recorded between 00:23 and 00:49 over Brussels and Zeebrugge. The last appears to have been uncredited.[25]

In June Rökker's unit was heavily engaged over the Western Front. On 6 June 1944 the Western Allies initiated Operation Overlord which began the Battle of Normandy. On the first day of the landing the British Army attempted to capture Caen. The Battle of Caen lasted for two months and NJG 2 flew night fighter operations against Bomber Command intrusions. On the night of 6/7 June, Rökker claimed five RAF bombers. The first was claimed southwest of Caen at 02:42. The next four were claimed at 02:48, 02:51, 03:01 and 03:08. The final two were claimed to the west of the city and all were Lancasters. The mission inflated Rökker's claims to 32.[26] No. 5 Group RAF lost six Lancasters in the Caen area this night—10 Lancasters and one Halifax were lost and 13 were claimed by German night fighter pilots.[27] Rökker is the only pilot known to have claimed in the vicinity.[26] On 13 June 1944 Rökker was awarded the German Cross in Gold.[4] South of Dieppe another Lancaster was claimed at 00:16 on 25 June and two more fell on 26 July at 03:21 and 04:38, northwest Châteaudun.[28] Rökker was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross for 35 (or 36) night victories on 27 July 1944.[4] In the early hours of the 29 July he intercepted two Lancaster bombers over Orleans and near Chaumont, and claimed them destroyed at 00:14 and 01:17. One of these bombers belonged to No. 514 Squadron RAF. It was flown by Flying Officer Robert Jones; only Sergeants Tom Harvell (engineer) and George Robinson (navigator) survived. Harvell evaded capture but Robinson became a prisoner of war.[29]

Rökker recorded three bombers destroyed on 7/8 August between 23:20 and 00:06 northeast of Le Havre. This included his 40th victory.[30] After Normandy, NJG 2 relocated to Germany from France and Belgium. On 4 November 1944 he claimed four bombers in the Dortmund area between 19:31 and 20:06.[31] On New Year's Day 1945, Rökker downed a Lancaster near Geldern. It was recorded at 20:07 in the evening. On the evening of 5 January he accounted for two Lancasters—one north of Nienburg at 19:19 and another northwest of Hannover at 19:29.[32] In February 1945 Rökker continued to achieve interceptions and file claims. On the night of the 1/2 February 1945 he accounted for a single Avro Lancaster bomber near Koblenz for his 50th victory.[33] Rökker recorded three more victories on the night of 3/4 February to take his score to 53. The latter success were claimed between 19:31 and 19:56 CET; the first over Krefeld and the last two victories were scored over Geldern.[34] A Douglas A-20 Havoc was shot down over Eindhoven Airport on 7/8 February and another Lancaster over Fulda on the evening of 14 February brought his tally to 55.[35] On the night of 21/22 February 1945, he claimed six Lancaster bombers between 20:46 and 21:19 CET. The first two Lancasters were claimed over Wageningen and 's-Hertogenbosch, the remaining four were shot down in the vicinity of Eindhoven. Heinz Rökker had now destroyed 61 enemy aircraft.[36] On the night of the 3/4 March, Rökker participated in Operation Gisela, the failed intruder operation over eastern England. He failed to shoot down any aircraft on this night.[37] For his achievements Rökker was awarded the 781st Oak Leaves to the Knight's Cross on 12 March 1945.[38]

On the night of 15/16 March 1945 Rökker recorded four enemy aircraft shot down as his last victories of the war. Two were recorded as four-engine heavy bombers over Düsseldorf with two minutes of each other at 20:50 and 20:52. At 21:26 and 21:34 Heinz Rökker flew over Sint-Truiden Air Base, formerly a Luftwaffe night fighter base, and claimed a B-25 Mitchell and de Havilland Mosquito shot down.[39]

As a Luftwaffe night fighter pilot, he mainly flew the Junkers Ju 88 G-1. Rökker was credited with 64 victories (from a total of 65 claims) in 161 missions. He recorded 63 of his victories at night, including 55 four-engine bombers. Carlos Nugent flew almost 150 missions with Rökker, and on 28 April 1945 became one of the few Bordfunker's decorated with the Knight's Cross.[38]

Summary of career[edit]

Rökker was credited with 64 aerial victories—63 nocturnal and one daytime victories—claimed in 161 combat missions. His 64 aerial victory claims include 55 four-engined bombers and one Mosquito. On the night 6/7 June 1944 and 21/22 February 1945, Rökker became an "ace-in-a-day".[40]

  This and the ♠ (Ace of spades) indicates those aerial victories which made Rökker an ace-in-a-day, a term which designates a fighter pilot who has shot down five or more airplanes in a single day.
  This and the – (dash) indicates unconfirmed aerial victory claims for which Rökker did not receive credit.

Chronicle of aerial victories
Victory Date Time Type Location Serial No./Squadron No.
– 1./Nachtjagdgeschwader 2 –
1 20 June 1942 17:20 Beaufort[6] south Crete DD959/No. 217 Squadron
2 25 June 1942 23:45 Wellington[8] 50 km (31 mi) southwest Mersa Matruh
3 26 June 1942 00:09 Wellington[8] 40 km (25 mi) southwest Mersa Matruh
4 28 June 1942 23:58 Wellington[9] 60 km (37 mi) southeast Mersa Matruh R1029/No. 108 Squadron
5 28 July 1942 23:10 Wellington[11] east Tobruk
6 19 April 1943 01:15 Wellington[12] south Marettimo
7 24 August 1943 00:35 Lancaster[14] 20 km (12 mi) southwest Berlin
8 24 August 1943 00:50 Lancaster[14] 15 km (9.3 mi) south-southwest Berlin
9 20 December 1943 19:47 Lancaster[41] Rothenberg
– 2./Nachtjagdgeschwader 2 –
10 24 February 1944 22:43 Stirling[42] south Heilbronn
11 25 February 1944 21:43 Lancaster[42] west Hagenau
12 15 March 1944 22:26 Lancaster[15] 50 km (31 mi) southwest Strasbourg
13 15 March 1944 22:35 Lancaster[15] west Hagenau
14 15 March 1944 22:55 Lancaster[43] west Stuttgart
15 22 March 1944 21:30 Lancaster[44] south Aurich
16 22 March 1944 22:27 Lancaster[23] Koblenz-Limburg
17 22 March 1944 22:35 Halifax[23] north Koblenz
18 24 March 1944 22:50 Lancaster[24] Berlin-Leipzig
19 24 March 1944 23:20 Halifax[24] southwest Bernburg
20 24 March 1944 23:48 Lancaster[24] east Kassel
21 26 March 1944 22:55 four-engined bomber[45] München-Gladbach[Note 3]
22 23 April 1944 01:58 Lancaster[46] 50 km (31 mi) northwest Düsseldorf
23 25 April 1944 02:05 Lancaster[47] 30 km (19 mi) northeast München
24 28 April 1944 01:39 Halifax[48] Freiburg im Breisgau
25 12 May 1944 00:23 Lancaster[49] 20–50 km (12–31 mi) northwest Brussels
26 12 May 1944 00:35 Lancaster[49] off Zeebrügge
12 May 1944 00:49 Lancaster[49]
27 28 May 1944 02:08 Halifax[50] 20–40 km (12–25 mi) northwest Eindhoven
28♠ 7 June 1944 02:42 Lancaster[26] 10–50 km (6.2–31.1 mi) southwest Caen
29♠ 7 June 1944 02:48 Lancaster[26] 10–50 km (6.2–31.1 mi) southwest Caen
30♠ 7 June 1944 02:51 Lancaster[26] southwest Caen
31♠ 7 June 1944 03:01 Lancaster[26] west Caen
32♠ 7 June 1944 03:08 Lancaster[26] west Caen
33 25 June 1944 00:16 Lancaster[51] south Dieppe
34 26 July 1944 03:21 four-engined bomber[52] northeast Romilly
35 26 July 1944 04:38 Lancaster[52] northwest Châteaudun
36 29 July 1944 00:14 four-engined bomber[53] Orléans
37 29 July 1944 01:17 Lancaster[53] 50 km (31 mi) northeast Chaumont
38 7 August 1944 23:29 Lancaster[30] northeast Le Havre
39 7 August 1944 23:35 Lancaster[30] northeast Le Havre
40 8 August 1944 00:06 Lancaster[30] northeast Le Havre
41 19 October 1944 21:48 Lancaster[54] Pirmasens
42 4 November 1944 19:31 Lancaster[55] north Dortmund ME865/No. 101 Squadron
43 4 November 1944 19:36 Lancaster[55] north Dortmund
44 4 November 1944 20:00 Halifax[56] north Geldern
45 4 November 1944 20:06 Halifax[56] north Geldern
46 1 January 1945 20:07 Lancaster[32] southeast Geldern
47 5 January 1945 19:19 Halifax[32] north Nienburg
48 5 January 1945 19:29 Lancaster[32] northwest Hannover
49 1 February 1945 19:46 Lancaster[33] north Koblenz
50 3 February 1945 19:31 Lancaster[34] northeast Krefeld
51 3 February 1945 19:51 Lancaster[34] north Geldern
52 3 February 1945 19:56 Lancaster[34] north Geldern
53 8 February 1945 00:21 Boston[34] Eindhoven airfield
54 14 February 1945 22:03 Lancaster[57] south Fulda
55♠ 21 February 1945 20:46 Lancaster[36] south Wageningen
56♠ 21 February 1945 20:56 Lancaster[36] southwest 's-Hertogenbosch
57♠ 21 February 1945 21:06 Lancaster[36] southeast Eindhoven
58♠ 21 February 1945 21:12 Lancaster[36] southwest Eindhoven
59♠ 21 February 1945 21:13 Lancaster[36] southwest Eindhoven
60♠ 21 February 1945 21:19 Lancaster[36] southwest Eindhoven
61 15 March 1945 20:50 four-engined bomber[39] north Düsseldorf
62 15 March 1945 20:52 four-engined bomber[39] north Düsseldorf
63 15 March 1945 21:26 B-25[39] at St. Trond airfield
64 15 March 1945 21:34 Mosquito[39] at St. Trond airfield

Awards[edit]

Promotions[edit]

1 October 1940: Gefreiter (private)[2]
1 May 1941: Fähnrich (officer candidate)[2]
1 August 1941: Oberfähnrich (officer cadet)[2]
1 November 1941: Leutnant (second lieutenant)[2]
1 December 1943: Oberleutnant (first lieutenant)[4]
1 August 1944: Hauptmann (captain)[38]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For an explanation of the meaning of Luftwaffe unit designation see Organization of the Luftwaffe during World War II.
  2. ^ In 1998, Joe Cleary, a survivor of Newman's crew, met with Rökker in Oldenburg. Together they visited the Lancaster's crash site near Oberkirchen.[21]
  3. ^ In 1950, the name was changed to Mönchen-Gladbach and to Mönchengladbach in 1960.

Publications[edit]

  • Chronik I. Gruppe Nachtjagdgeschwader 2 I. /NJG 2. Juli 1940 bis Kriegsende 1945 Fernnachtjagd 1940–1942. [Chronicle of I. Group of the 2nd Night Fighter Wing I./NJG July 1940 to the End of the War 1945 Long Range Nighter Fighter 1940–1942.] (in German). VDM Heinz Nickel, Zweibrücken 1997, ISBN 3-925480-24-2.
  • Chronik der Tennisabteilung des Oldenburger Turnerbundes 1931–2001. [Chronicle of the Tennis Department of the Oldenburger Turnerbundes 1931-2001.] (in German). Isensee, Oldenburg 2003, ISBN 3-89995-052-6.
  • Ausbildung und Einsatz eines Nachtjägers im II. Weltkrieg – Erinnerung aus dem Kriegstagebuch [Training and Employment of a Night Fighter in the Second World War - Recollections from the War Diary] (in German). VDM Heinz Nickel, Zweibrücken 2006, ISBN 978-3-86619-008-5.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Scutts 1998, p. 88.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Stockert 2008, p. 161.
  3. ^ a b c Bowman 2016, p. 26.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Stockert 2008, p. 162.
  5. ^ Ring 1969, p. 131.
  6. ^ a b Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 46.
  7. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1992, p. 362.
  8. ^ a b c Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 47.
  9. ^ a b Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 48.
  10. ^ a b Bond 2014, p. 122.
  11. ^ a b Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 51.
  12. ^ a b Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 76.
  13. ^ Bond 2014, p. 123.
  14. ^ a b c Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 105.
  15. ^ a b c Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 154.
  16. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 152–153.
  17. ^ Bowman 2016, pp. 27–28.
  18. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, pp. 154–155.
  19. ^ Bowman 2016, pp. 30–31.
  20. ^ Bowman 2016, p. 34.
  21. ^ Bilder noch heute vor Augen.
  22. ^ Bowman 2016, p. 37.
  23. ^ a b c Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 157.
  24. ^ a b c d Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 158.
  25. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, pp. 169–171, 176.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 184.
  27. ^ Everitt & Middlebrook 2014, p. 322.
  28. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, pp. 192, 204.
  29. ^ Bowman 2015, p. 85.
  30. ^ a b c d Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 207.
  31. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, pp. 222–223.
  32. ^ a b c d Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 228.
  33. ^ a b Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 233.
  34. ^ a b c d e Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 234.
  35. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, pp. 234–235.
  36. ^ a b c d e f g Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 236.
  37. ^ Boiten 1997, p. 53.
  38. ^ a b c Stockert 2008, p. 163.
  39. ^ a b c d e Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 242.
  40. ^ Obermaier 1989, p. 74.
  41. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 134.
  42. ^ a b Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 152.
  43. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 155.
  44. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 156.
  45. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 160.
  46. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 169.
  47. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 170.
  48. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 171.
  49. ^ a b c Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 176.
  50. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 180.
  51. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 192.
  52. ^ a b Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 204.
  53. ^ a b Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 205.
  54. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 220.
  55. ^ a b Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 222.
  56. ^ a b Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 223.
  57. ^ Foreman, Parry & Matthews 2004, p. 235.
  58. ^ a b Thomas 1998, p. 219.
  59. ^ Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 383.
  60. ^ a b Scherzer 2007, p. 635.
  61. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 361.
  62. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 99.

Bibliography[edit]

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  • Bond, Steve (2014). Wimpy: A Detailed History of the Vickers Wellington in service, 1938-1953. London: Grub Street Publishing. ISBN 978-1-90980-814-0. 
  • Bowman, Martin (2015). Voices in Flight: The Night Air War. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-78383-191-3. 
  • Bowman, Martin (2016). German Night Fighters Versus Bomber Command 1943–1945. Barnsley: Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-47384-979-2. 
  • Everitt, Chris; Middlebrook, Martin. (2014) [1985]. The Bomber Command War Diaries: An Operational Reference Book. Pen & Sword. ISBN 978-1-78346360-2. 
  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) [1986]. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 — Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 – The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6. 
  • Foreman, John; Parry, Simon; Matthews, Johannes (2004). Luftwaffe Night Fighter Claims 1939–1945. Walton on Thames: Red Kite. ISBN 978-0-9538061-4-0. 
  • Obermaier, Ernst (1989). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe Jagdflieger 1939 – 1945 [The Knight's Cross Bearers of the Luftwaffe Fighter Force 1939 – 1945] (in German). Mainz, Germany: Verlag Dieter Hoffmann. ISBN 978-3-87341-065-7. 
  • Patzwall, Klaus D.; Scherzer, Veit (2001). Das Deutsche Kreuz 1941 – 1945 Geschichte und Inhaber Band II [The German Cross 1941 – 1945 History and Recipients Volume 2] (in German). Norderstedt, Germany: Verlag Klaus D. Patzwall. ISBN 978-3-931533-45-8. 
  • Ring, Hans (1969). Fighters over the desert: the air battles in the Western Desert, June 1940 to December 1942. Neville Spearman. ISBN 978-0-85435-060-5. 
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2. 
  • Scutts, Jerry (1998). German Night Fighter Aces of World War 2. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85532-696-5. 
  • Shores, Christopher; Cull, Brian; Malizia, Nicola (1992). Malta: The Spitfire Year 1942. London: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-94881-716-8. 
  • Stockert, Peter (2008). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 8 [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 8] (in German). Bad Friedrichshall: Friedrichshaller Rundblick. ISBN 978-3932915017. OCLC 76072662. 
  • Thomas, Franz (1998). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2: L–Z [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2: L–Z] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2300-9. 
  • "Bilder noch heute vor Augen" [Still Today, Pictures before the Eyes]. Sauerlandkurier (in German). 25 March 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2016.