|Native to||Hejaz region, Saudi Arabia|
|6 million (1996)|
regions where Hejazi is the language of the majority
regions considered as part of modern Hejaz region
Hejazi Arabic or Hijazi Arabic (Arabic: حجازي ḥijāzī), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia. Strictly speaking, there are two main groups of dialects spoken in the Hejaz region, one by the urban population who consist the majority, and another by the bedouin rural population. However, the term most often applies to the urban variety, spoken in the major cities such as Jeddah, Mecca, Medina, Ta'if, and Yanbu.
- 1 Classification
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Vocabulary
- 4 Grammar
- 5 Writing system
- 6 Rural Dialects
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
- 9 External links
Urban Hejazi Arabic belongs to the western Peninsular Arabic branch of the Arabic language, which itself is a Semitic language. It includes features of both urban and bedouin dialects giving its history between the ancient urban cities of Medina and Mecca and the bedouin tribes that lived on the outskirts of these cities. The main phonological characteristic features that differentiate Urban Hejazi from the neighbouring Najdi ِdialect and other bedouin dialects in the Arabian peninsula is the absence of vowel reduction, the classical pronunciation of the letter ⟨ض⟩, the distinction between it and ⟨ظ⟩, and the pronunciation of the letters ⟨ث⟩, ⟨ذ⟩, and ⟨ظ⟩.
Also referred to as the sedentary Hejazi dialect, this is the form most commonly associated with the term "Hejazi Arabic", and is spoken in the urban centers of the region, such as Jeddah, Mecca, and Medina. With respect to the axis of bedouin versus sedentary dialects of the Arabic language, this dialect group exhibits features of both. Like other sedentary dialects, the urban Hejazi dialect is less conservative than the bedouin varieties in some aspects and has therefore shed some Classical forms and features that are still present in bedouin dialects, while retaining others. These include the internal passive form (which in Hejazi, is replaced by the pattern (أنفعل /anfaʕal/, ينفعل /jinfaʕil/), the marker for indefiniteness (tanwin), gender-number disagreement, and the feminine marker -n (see Varieties of Arabic).
- The present progressive tense is marked by the prefix بـ /bi/ or قاعد /gaːʕid/ as in بيدرس /bijidrus/ or قاعد يدرس /gaːʕid jidrus/ ("he is studying").
- In contrast to bedouin dialects, the distinction between the emphatic sounds /dˤ/ ض and /zˤ/ ظ is generally preserved in a number of words.
- The final -n in present tense plural verb forms is no longer employed (e.g. يركبوا /jirkabu/ instead of يركبون /jarkəbuːn/).
- The dominant case ending before the 3rd person masculine singular pronoun is -u, rather than the -a that is prevalent in bedouin dialects. For example, بيته /beːtu/ ("his house"), عنده /ʕindu/ ("he has"), أعرفه /aʕrifu/ ("I know him").
- Hejazi Arabic does not employ double negation, nor does it append the negation particles -sh to negate verbs: Hejazi ما اعرف /maː aʕrif/ ("I don't know"), as opposed to Egyptian معرفش /maʕrafʃ/ and Palestinian بعرفش /baʕrafiʃ/.
- The prohibitive mood of Classical Arabic is preserved in the imperative: لا تروح /laː tiruːħ/ ("don't go").
- The possessive suffixes are generally preserved in their Classical forms. For example, بيتكم /beːtakum/ "your (pl) house".
- The plural first person pronoun is نحنا /niħna/ or إحنا /iħna/, as opposed to the bedouin حنّا /ħənna/ or إنّا /ənna/.
- When used to indicate location, the preposition في /fi/ is preferred to بـ /b/. In bedouin dialects, the preference differs by region.
- Less restriction on the distribution of /i/ and /u/.
- The glottal stop can be added to final syllables ending in a vowel as a way of emphasising.
- Compared to neighboring dialects, urban Hejazi retains more of the short vowels of Modern Standard Arabic, for example:
- سمكة /samaka/ ("fish"), as opposed to bedouin /smika/.
- ضربَته /dˤarabatu/ ("she hit him"), as opposed to bedouin /ðˤrabətah/.
- أكتب /aktub/ ("write"), Imperative mood, as opposed to bedouin /iktib/.
- عندَكُم /ʕindakum/ ("in your possession" pl.), as opposed to bedouin /ʕandkum/, Egyptian /ʕanduku/, and Levantine /ʕandkun/.
In general Hejazi phonemic inventory mostly depends on the speaker, the maximum number of consonant phonemes in both urban and rural dialects is twenty-eight which the same number of phonemes in Classical Arabic, while the number vowel phonemes in both dialects alike is eight /a, u, i, aː, uː, oː, iː, eː/. Consonant length and Vowel length are both distinctive in Hejazi.
- the classicized [q] is an allophone of /ɡ/ ⟨ق⟩ in few words and proper names as in القرآن /algurˈʔaːn/→[alqʊrˈʔaːn] ('Quran') and القاهرة /alˈgaːhira/→[alˈqaːhɪra] ('Cairo').
- the marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only occurs in the word الله /aɫːaːh/ ('god') and words derived from it, it contrasts with /l/ in والله /waɫːa/ ('i swear') vs. ولَّا /walːa/ ('or').
- the classicized [ðˤ] is an optional allophone for ⟨ظ⟩, but it is always used when pronouncing the letter's name which is [ˈðˤaːʔ]. In general, urban Hejazi speakers pronounce it as /zˤ/ or merge it with /dˤ/ depending on the word.
- /u/ is pronounced allophonically as [ʊ] or [o̞] in word initial or medial syllables and strictly as [u] at the end of words or before [w] or when isolate.
- /i/ is pronounced allophonically as [ɪ] or [e̞] in word initial or medial syllables and strictly as [i] at the end of words or before [j] or when isolate.
Hejazi vocabulary derives primarily from Classical Arabic Semitic roots. The urban Hejazi vocabulary differs in some respect from that of other dialects in the Arabian Peninsula. For example, there are fewer specialized terms related to desert life, and more terms related to seafaring and fishing. Loanwords are mainly of Persian, Turkish, Latin (French and Italian) and English origins, and due to the diverse origins of the inhabitants of Hejazi cities, some loanwords are only used by some families. Many loanwords are fading due to the influence of Modern Standard Arabic and their association with lower social class and education. Most of the loanwords are nouns (with a change of meaning sometimes) as in : جزمة /d͡ʒazma/ "shoe" from Turkish çizme /t͡ʃizme/ originally meaning "boot" or كُبري /kubri/ "overpass" from köprü /køpry/ originally meaning "bridge".
General Hejazi Expressions include بالتوفيق /bitːawfiːg/ "good luck", لو سمحت /law samaħt/ "please/excuse me" to a male, إيوه /ʔiːwa/ "yes", لأ /laʔ/ "no", لسة /lisːa/ "not yet", قد /ɡid/ or قيد /ɡiːd/ "already", دحين /daħiːn/ or /daħeːn/ "now"..
A common feature in Hejazi vocabulary is Portmanteau words (also called a blend in linguistics); in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, it is especially innovative in making Interrogative words, examples include:
- إيوه (/ʔiːwa/, "yes") : from إي (/ʔiː/, "yes") and و (/wa/, "and") and الله (/aɫːaːh/, "god").
- معليش (/maʕleːʃ/, is it ok?/sorry) : from ما (/maː/, nothing) and عليه (/ʕalajh/, on him) and شيء (/ʃajʔ/, thing).
- إيش (/ʔeːʃ/, "what?") : from أي (/aj/, "which") and شيء (/ʃajʔ/, "thing").
- ليش (/leːʃ/, "why?") : from لأي (/liʔaj/, for what) and شيء (/ʃajʔ/, "thing").
- فين (/feːn/, where?) : from في (/fiː/, in) and أين (/ʔajn/, where).
- إلين (/ʔileːn/, "until") : from إلى (/ʔilaː/, "to") and أن (/an/, "that").
- دحين (/daħiːn/ or /daħeːn/, "now") or ذحين (/ðaħiːn/ or /ðaħeːn/, "now") : from ذا (/ðaː/, "this") and الحين (/alħiːn/, part of time).
- بعدين (/baʕdeːn/, later) : from بعد (baʕd, after) and أَيْن (ʔayn, part of time).
- علشان or عشان (/ʕalaʃaːn/ or /ʕaʃaːn/, "because") : from على (/ʕalaː/, "on") and شأن (/ʃaʔn/, "matter").
- كمان (/kamaːn/, "also") : from كما (/kamaː/, "like") and أن (/ʔan/, "that").
- يلّا (/jaɫːa/, come on) : from يا (/jaː/, "o!") and الله (/aɫːaːh/, "god").
The Cardinal number system in Hejazi is much more simplified than the Classical Arabic
|1 واحد||/waːħid/||11 احدعش||/iħdaʕaʃ/||10 عشرة||/ʕaʃara/||100 مية||/mijːa/|
|2 اثنين||/itneːn/||12 اطنعش||/itˤnaʕaʃ/||20 عشرين||/ʕiʃriːn/||200 ميتين||/mijteːn/ or /mijːateːn/|
|3 ثلاثة||/talaːta/||13 ثلثطعش||/talattˤaʕaʃ/||30 ثلاثين||/talaːtiːn/||300 ثلثميَّة||/tultumijːa/|
|4 أربعة||/arbaʕa/||14 أربعطعش||/arbaʕtˤaʕaʃ/||40 أربعين||/arbiʕiːn/||400 أربعميَّة||/urbuʕmijːa/|
|5 خمسة||/xamsa/||15 خمسطعش||/xamistˤaʕaʃ/||50 خمسين||/xamsiːn/||500 خمسميَّة||/xumsumijːa/|
|6 ستة||/sitːa/||16 ستطعش||/sittˤaʕaʃ/||60 ستين||/sitːiːn/||600 ستميَّة||/sutːumijːa/|
|7 سبعة||/sabʕa/||17 سبعطعش||/sabaʕtˤaʕaʃ/||70 سبعين||/sabʕiːn/||700 سبعميَّة||/subʕumijːa/|
|8 ثمنية||/tamanja/||18 ثمنطعش||/tamantˤaʕaʃ/||80 ثمانين||/tamaːniːn/||800 ثمنميَّة||/tumnumijːa/|
|9 تسعة||/tisʕa/||19 تسعطعش||/tisaʕtˤaʕaʃ/||90 تسعين||/tisʕiːn/||900 تسعميَّة||/tusʕumijːa/|
|10 عشرة||/ʕaʃara/||20 عشرين||/ʕiʃriːn/||100 ميَّة||/mijːa/||1000 ألف||/alf/|
A system similar to the German numbers system is used for other numbers between 20 and above : 21 is واحد و عشرين /waːħid u ʕiʃriːn/ which literally mean ('one and twenty') and 485 is أربعمية و خمسة و ثمانين /urbuʕmijja u xamsa u tamaːniːn/ which literally mean ('four hundred and five and eighty').
Unlike Classical Arabic,the only number that is gender specified in Hejazi is "one" which has two forms واحد and وحدة as in كتاب واحد /kitaːb waːħid/ ('one book') or سيارة وحدة /sajːaːra waħda/ ('one car').
- for 2 as in 'two cars' 'two years' 'two houses' etc. the dual form is used instead of the number with the suffix ēn /eːn/ or tēn /teːn/ (if the noun ends with a feminine /a/) as in كتابين /kitaːbeːn/ ('two books') or سيّارتين /sajːarateːn/ ('two cars').
- for numbers 3 to 10 the noun following the number is in plural form as in اربعة كتب /arbaʕa kutub/ ('4 books') or عشرة سيّارات /ʕaʃara sajːaːraːt/ ('10 cars').
- for numbers 11 and above the noun following the number is in singular form as in :-
- from 11 to 19 an ـر [ar] is added to the end of the numbers as in اربعطعشر كتاب /arbaʕtˤaʕʃar kitaːb/ ('14 books') or احدعشر سيّارة /iħdaʕʃar sajːaːra/ ('11 cars').
- for 100s a [t] is added to the end of the numbers before the counted nouns as in ثلثميّة سيّارة /tultumijːat sajːaːra/ ('300 cars').
- other numbers are simply added to the singular form of the noun واحد و عشرين كتاب /waːħid u ʕiʃriːn kitaːb/ ('21 books').
In Hejazi Arabic, personal pronouns have eight forms. In singular, the 2nd and 3rd persons differentiate gender, while the 1st person and plural do not.
Hejazi Arabic verbs, as with the verbs in other Semitic languages, and the entire vocabulary in those languages, are based on a set of three, four also five consonants (but mainly three consonants) called a root (triliteral or quadriliteral according to the number of consonants). The root communicates the basic meaning of the verb, e.g. k-t-b 'to write', ʼ-k-l 'to eat'. Changes to the vowels in between the consonants, along with prefixes or suffixes, specify grammatical functions such as :
- Two tenses (past, present; present progressive is indicated by the prefix (b-), future is indicated by the prefix (ħ-))
- Two voices (active, passive)
- Two genders (masculine, feminine)
- Three persons (first, second, third)
- Two numbers (singular, plural)
- Two moods (indicative, imperative).
Hejazi Has a single indicative present verb mood instead of the three Classical Arabic present verb moods (indicative رفع, subjunctive نصب, jussive جزم), it also includes present progressive tense which was not part of the Classical Arabic grammar, and has a two grammatical number in verbs (Singular and Plural) instead of the Classical (Singular, Dual and Plural).
the most common verbs in Hejazi have a given vowel pattern for past (a and i) to present (a or u or i). Combinations of each exist:
|a||a||raħam رحم he forgave – yirħam يرحم he forgives|
|a||u||ḍarab ضرب he hit – yiḍrub يضرب he hits|
|a||i||ġasal غسل he washed – yiġsil يغسل he washes|
|i||a||fihim فهم he understood – yifham يفهم he understands|
|i||i||ʕirif عرف he knew – yiʕrif يعرف he knows|
According to Arab grammarians, verbs are divided into three categories; Past ماضي, Present مضارع and Imperative أمر. An example from the root k-t-b the verb katabt/ʼaktub 'i wrote/i write' (which is a regular sound verb):
|Tense/Mood||Past "wrote"||Present (Indicative) "write"||Imperative "write!"|
|1st||كتبت (katab)-t||كتبنا (katab)-na||أكتب ʼa-(ktub)||نكتب ni-(ktub)|
|2nd||masculine||كتبت (katab)-t||كتبتوا (katab)-tu||تكتب ti-(ktub)||تكتبوا ti-(ktub)-u||أكتب [a]-(ktub)||أكتبوا [a]-(ktub)-u|
|feminine||كتبتي (katab)-ti||تكتبي ti-(ktub)-i||أكتبي [a]-(ktub)-i|
|3rd||masculine||كتب (katab)||كتبوا (katab)-u||يكتب yi-(ktub)||يكتبوا yi-(ktub)-u|
|feminine||كتبت (katab)-at||تكتب ti-(ktub)|
While present progressive and future are indicated by adding the prefix (b-) and (ħ-) respectively to the present (indicative) :
|Tense/Mood||Present Progressive "writing"||Future "will write"|
|1st||بكتب or بأكتب ba-a-(ktub)||بنكتب bi-ni-(ktub)||حكتب or حأكتب ħa-a-(ktub)||حنكتب ħa-ni-(ktub)|
|2nd||masculine||بتكتب bi-ti-(ktub)||بتكتبوا bi-ti-(ktub)-u||حتكتب ħa-ti-(ktub)||حتكتبوا ħa-ti-(ktub)-u|
|feminine||بتكتبي bi-ti-(ktub)-i||حتكتبي ħa-ti-(ktub)-i|
|3rd||masculine||بيكتب bi-yi-(ktub)||بيكتبوا bi-yi-(ktub)-u||حيكتب ħa-yi-(ktub)||حيكتبوا ħa-yi-(ktub)-u|
|feminine||بتكتب bi-ti-(ktub)||حتكتب ħa-ti-(ktub)|
- The Active Participles قاعد /gaːʕid/, قاعدة /gaːʕda/ and قاعدين /gaːʕdiːn/ can be used instead of the prefix بـ [b-] as in قاعد اكتب /gaːʕid aktub/ ('i'm writing') instead of بأكتب/ بكتب /baktub/ / /baʔaktub/ ('i'm writing') without any change in the meaning.
- the 3rd person past plural suffix -/u/ turns into -/oː/ (long o) before pronouns. as in كتبوا /katabu/ ('they wrote') → كتبوا لي /kataboːli/ ('they wrote to me'), and عرفوا /ʕirfu/ ('they knew') → عرفوني /ʕirfoːni/ ('they knew me')
- the verbs highlighted in silver sometimes come in irregular forms e.g. (ħabbē)-t "i loved", (ħabbē)-na "we loved" but (ħabb) "he loved" and (ħabb)-u "they loved".
Example: katabt/aktub "write": non-finite forms
|Number/Gender||اسم الفاعل Active Participle||اسم المفعول Passive Participle||مصدر Verbal Noun|
|Masc. Sg.||kātib كاتب||maktūb مكتوب||kitāba كتابة|
|Fem. Sg.||kātb-a كاتبة||maktūb-a مكتوبة|
|Pl.||kātb-īn كاتبين||maktūb-īn مكتوبين|
Active participles act as adjectives, and so they must agree with their subject. An active participle can be used in several ways:
- to describe a state of being (understanding; knowing).
- to describe what someone is doing right now (going, leaving) as in some verbs like رحت ("i went") the active participle رايح ("i'm going") is used instead of present continuous form to give the same meaning of an ongoing action.
- to indicate that someone/something is in a state of having done something (having put something somewhere, having lived somewhere for a period of time).
Enclitic forms of object pronouns are suffixes that are affixed to various parts of speech, with varying meanings:
- To the construct state of nouns, where they have the meaning of possessive demonstratives, e.g. "my, your, his".
- To verbs, where they have the meaning of direct object pronouns, e.g. "me, you, him".
- To verbs, where they have the meaning of indirect object pronouns, e.g. "(to/for) me,(to/for) you, (to/for) him".
- To prepositions.
Unlike Egyptian Arabic, in Hejazi no more than one pronoun can be suffixed to a word.
- When a noun ends in a feminine /a/ vowel as in مدرسة /madrasa/ ('school') : a /t/ is added before the suffixes as in → مدرستي /madrasati/ ('my school'), مدرسته /madrasatu/ ('his school'), مدرستها /madrasatha/ ('her school') and so on.
- After a word ends in a vowel (other than the /-a/ of the feminine nouns), the vowel is lengthened, and the pronouns in (Parentheses) are used instead of their original counterparts :-
- the possessive pronouns as in كرسي /kursi/ ('chair') → كرسيه /kursiː/ ('his chair'), كرسينا /kursiːna/ ('our chair'), كرسيكي /kursiːki/ ('your chair' f.)
- the direct object pronouns لاحقنا /laːħagna/ ('we followed') → لاحقناه /laːħagnaː/ ('we followed him'), لاحقناكي /laːħagnaːki/ ('we followed you' feminine).
- the indirect object pronouns رحنا /ruħna/ ('we went') → رحنا له /ruħnaːlu/ ('we went to him').
- After a word that ends in two consonants, or which has a long vowel in the last syllable, /-a-/ is inserted before the 5 suffixes which begin with a consonant /-ni/, /-na/, /-ha/, /-hom/, /-kom/ :-
- the possessive pronouns كتاب /kitaːb/ ('book') → كتابها /kitaːbaha/ ('her book'), كتابهم /kitaːbahum/ ('their book'), كتابكم /kitaːbakum/ ('your book' plural), كتابنا /kitaːbana/ ('our book').
- the direct object pronouns عرفت /ʕirift/ ('you knew') → عرفتني /ʕiriftani/ ('you knew me'), عرفتنا /ʕiriftana/ ('you knew us'), عرفتها /ʕiriftaha/ ('you knew her'), عرفتهم /ʕiriftahum/ ('you knew them').
- only with indirect object pronouns when a verb ends in two consonants as in katabt كتبت /katabt/ ('i wrote') : an /-al-/ is added before the Indirect object pronoun suffixes → katabtallu كتبت له /katabtalːu/ ('i wrote to him'), katabtallahum كتبت لهم /katabtalːahum/ ('i wrote to them').
- only with indirect object pronouns when a verb has a long vowel in the last syllable as in أروح [aruːħ] ('I go') : the vowel is shortened before the suffixes → أرُح لها [aruħlaha] ('I go to her') with the verbs resembling the Jussive mood conjugation in Classical Arabic.
- ^1 the colon between the (Parentheses) indicate that only the vowel is lengthened, since the word-final ـه [h] is silent in this position.
- ^2 if a noun ends with a vowel (other than the /-a/ of the feminine nouns) that is /u/ or /a/ then the suffix (-ya) is used as in أبو [abu] ('father') becomes َابوي [abuːja] ('my father') but if it ends with an /i/ then the suffix (-yya) is added as in َّكرسي [kursijːa] ('my chair').
- it is uncommon for Hejazi nouns to end in a vowel other than the /-a/ of the feminine nouns.
Hejazi is written using the Arabic alphabet, like other varieties of Arabic, Hejazi does not have a standard form of writing and mostly follows the Classical Arabic form of writing. in general people alternate between writing the words according to their etymology or the phoneme used while pronouncing them, which mainly affect the three interdental letters ⟨ث⟩ ,⟨ذ⟩ and ⟨ظ⟩ and their alternatives, and writing some words that end in a vowel, whether to add a vowel at the end of the word or write its Classical Arabic form as in the word ('you' singular feminine) /inti/ which can be written as انتِ or انتي. The table below shows the Arabic alphabet letters and their corresponding phonemes in urban Hejazi :-
|ا||/ʔ/ (see ⟨ء⟩ Hamza).||سأل "he asked"||/saʔal/|
|/a/ only when word-final and unstressed (when word-final and stressed it's an /aː/)||شُفنا "we saw", (ذا m. "this")||/ˈʃufna/, (/ˈdaː/ or /ˈðaː/)|
|additional ∅ silent word-final only in plural verbs and after nunation||قالوا "they said", شكرًا "thanks"||/gaːlu/, /ʃukran/|
|/t/ can be written ⟨ت⟩||or /θ/ (alternative classical phoneme)||ثخين "thick"||/taxiːn/ or /θaxiːn/|
|/s/ can be written ⟨س⟩||مثال "example"||/misaːl/ or /miθaːl/|
|ج||/d͡ʒ/||جوَّال "mobile phone"||/d͡ʒawːaːl/|
|/d/ can be written ⟨د⟩||or /ð/ (alternative classical phoneme)||ذيل "tail"||/deːl/ or /ðeːl/|
|/z/ can be written ⟨ز⟩||ذوق "taste"||/zoːg/ or /ðoːg/|
|/dˤ/ can be written ⟨ض⟩||ظل "shade"||/dˤilː/|
|ل||/l/ (marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only in the word الله and words derived from it).||لحم "meat", (الله "god")||/laħam/, (/aɫːaːh/)|
|هـ||/h/ (∅ silent only word-final in 3rd person masculine singular pronouns and some words)||هوا "air", (كتابُه "his book", شفناه "we saw him")||/hawa/, (/kitaːbu/, /ʃufˈnaː/)|
|/u/ only when word-final and unstressed (when word-final and stressed it's either /uː/ or /oː/)||ربو "asthma", (مو "is not", جوا "they came")||/ˈrabu/, (/ˈmuː/, /ˈd͡ʒoː/)|
|/iː/||بيض "whites pl."||/biːdˤ/|
|/i/ only when word-final and unstressed (when word-final and stressed it's either /iː/ or /eː/)||سعودي "saudi", (ذي f. "this")||/suˈʕuːdi/, (/ˈdiː/ or /ˈðiː/)|
|Additional non-native letters|
|پ||/p/ (can be written and pronounced as a ⟨ب⟩)||پول ~ بول "Paul"||/poːl/ ~ /boːl/|
|ڤ||/v/ (can be written and pronounced as a ⟨ف⟩)||ڤيروس ~ فيروس "virus"||/vajruːs/ ~ /fajruːs/|
- Some words are an exception to these rules such as ضبط ("it worked") is pronounced /zˤabatˤ/ and not /dˤabatˤ/.
- The classical [q] is an allophone for /g/ ⟨ق⟩ only in few words and proper nouns e.g. قاموس "dictionary" /gaːmuːs/→[qaːmuːs].
- The classical [ðˤ] is an optional allophone for the letter ⟨ظ⟩, its usage depends on the speaker's preference.
- Short vowels are written as diacritics :-
- ـَ above the letter for /a/.
- ـُ above the letter for /u/.
- ـِ under the letter for /i/.
The varieties of Arabic spoken in the smaller towns and by the bedouin tribes in the Hejaz region are relatively under-studied. However, the speech of some tribes shows much closer affinity to other bedouin dialects, particularly those of neighboring Najd, than to those of the urban Hejazi cities. The dialects of northern Hejazi tribes merge into those of Jordan and Sinai, while the dialects in the south merge with those of 'Asir and Najd. Also, not all speakers of these bedouin dialects are figuratively nomadic bedouins; some are simply sedentary sections that live in rural areas, and thus speak dialects similar to those of their bedouin neighbors.
The dialect of Al-`Ula governorate in the northern part of the Madinah region. Although understudied, it is considered to be unique among the Hejazi dialects, it is known for its pronunciation of Classical Arabic ⟨ك⟩ /k/ as a ⟨ش⟩ /ʃ/ (e.g. تكذب /takðib/ becomes تشذب /taʃðib/), the dialect also shows a tendency to pronounce long /aː/ as [eː] (e.g. Classical ماء /maːʔ/ becomes ميء [meːʔ]), in some instances the Classical /q/ becomes a /d͡ʒ/ as in قايلة /qaːjla/ becomes جايلة /d͡ʒaːjla/, also the second person singular feminine pronoun /ik/ tends to be pronounced as /iʃ/ (e.g. رجلك /rid͡ʒlik/ ('your foot') becomes رجلش /rid͡ʒliʃ/.
The dialect of Badr governorate in the western part of the Madinah region is mainly noted for its lengthening of word-final syllables and its alternative pronunciation of some phonemes as in سؤال /suʔaːl/ which is pronounced as سعال /suʕaːl/, it also shares some features with the general urban dialect in which modern standard Arabic ثلاجة /θalːaːd͡ʒa/ is pronounced تلاجة /talːaːd͡ʒa/, another unique feature of the dialect is its similarity to the Arabic dialects of Bahrain.
- Hejazi Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Hejazi Arabic". Glottolog 2.7. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Alzaidi (2014:73)
- Abdoh (2010:84)
- Omar (1975:xv)
- Alahmadi (2015:45)
- Kheshaifaty (1997)
- Omar (1975)
- Holes, Clive (2004). Modern Arabic: Structures, Functions, and Varieties. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, Washington D.C. p. 92.
- Aljuhani, Sultan (2008). "Spoken Al-'Ula dialect between privacy and fears of extinction. (in Arabic)".
- Kees Versteegh, The Arabic Language, NITLE Arab World Project, by the permission of Edinburgh University Press, 
- Ingham, Bruce (1971). "Some Characteristics of Meccan Speech". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. School of Oriental and African Studies. 34 (2): 273–97. ISSN 1474-0699. JSTOR 612692 – via JSTOR. (registration required (. ))
- Abdoh, Eman Mohammed (2010). A Study of the Phonological Structure and Representation of First Words in Arabic (PDF) (Thesis).
- Alzaidi, Muhammad Swaileh A. (2014). Information Structure and Intonation in Hijazi Arabic (PDF) (Thesis).
- Omar, Margaret k. (1975). "Saudi Arabic, Urban Hijazi Dialect" (PDF).
- Kheshaifaty, Hamza M.J. (1997). "Numerals: a comparative study between classical and hijazi arabic" (PDF). Journal of King Saud University, Arts. 9 (1): 19–36.
- Watson, Janet C. E. (2002). The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic (PDF).
- https://www.livelingua.com/course/fsi/Saudi_Arabian_Arabic_Course_(Hijazi_Dialect); Hijazi Arabic course with audio files.