|Native to||Hejaz region, Saudi Arabia|
|6 million (1996)|
regions where Hejazi is the language of the majority
regions considered as part of modern Hejaz region
Hejazi Arabic (Arabic: حجازي ḥijāzī), also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of Arabic spoken in the Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia. Although, strictly speaking, there are two distinct dialects spoken in the Hejaz region, one by the bedouin rural population, and another by the urban population, the term most often applies to the urban variety, spoken in cities such as Jeddah, Mecca, Yanbu, Ta'if, and Medina.
Urban Hejazi appears to be most closely related to the Arabic dialects of Central Arabian Peninsula (Najdi Arabic), Northern Sudan and Egyptian Arabic in both pronunciation and grammar. Hejazi Arabic has many close similarities between Egyptian Arabic and Najdi Arabic. Hejazi Arabic dialect is also spoken by Rashaida in Eritrea and Sudan. Hejazi Arabic is used for daily communications and has no official status, instead, Modern Standard Arabic is used for official purposes, especially in Eritrea where Arabic is not the lingua franca.
- 1 Classification
- 2 Features
- 3 Vocabulary
- 4 Phonology
- 5 Grammar
- 6 Writing System
- 7 Bedouin Hejazi
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Hejazi belongs to the western Peninsular Arabic branch of the Arabic language, which itself is a Semitic language. It includes features of both urban and bedouin dialects giving its history between the ancient urban cities of Medina and Mecca and the bedouin tribes that lived on the outskirts of these cities. the main noticeable characteristic features that differentiate Hejazi from the neighbouring accent Najdi and other accents in the Arabian peninsula is the five vowel /i/, /e/, /a/, /o/ and /u/ system with no vowel reduction, and the heavy stress used in the accents of Jeddah and Mecca and the distinction between the letters ض [dˤ] and ظ [ðˤ] / [zˤ].
Also referred to as the sedentary Hejazi dialect, this is the form most commonly associated with the term "Hejazi Arabic", and is spoken in the urban centers of the region, such as Jeddah, Mecca, and Medina. With respect to the axis of bedouin versus sedentary dialects of the Arabic language, this dialect group exhibits features of both.
Like other sedentary dialects, the urban Hejazi dialect is less conservative than the bedouin varieties and has therefore shed many Classical forms and features that are still present in many bedouin dialects. These include the internal passive form (which in Hejazi, is replaced by the pattern anfa'al"/"yinfa'il), the marker for indefiniteness (tanwin), gender-number disagreement, and the feminine marker -n (see Varieties of Arabic). Features that mark Hejazi Arabic as a sedentary dialect include:
- The present progressive tense is marked by gaʿid, ʿammaːl or the prefix bi- (gaʿed/ʿammaːl yektub or biyedrus "he is studying").
- In contrast to bedouin dialects, the distinction between the emphatic sounds /dˤ/ ض and /ðˤ/ ظ is generally preserved in some words and according to the speaker's hometown.
- The final -n in present tense plural verb forms is no longer employed (e.g. yirkabu instead of yirkabun)
- The dominant case ending before the 3rd person masculine singular pronoun is -u, rather than the -a that is prevalent in bedouin dialects. For example, bētuh "his house", ʿenduh "he has", aʿrifuh "he knew him".
- Possessive pronouns for the 2nd person are -ak (masculine) and -ek (feminine). In Standard Arabic, these are -ka and -ki, respectively.
- Hejazi Arabic does not employ double negation, nor does it append the negation particles -sh to negate verbs: Hejazi mā aʿref "I don't know", as opposed to Egyptian maʿrafsh and Palestinian biʿrafish.
- The prohibitive mood of Classical Arabic is preserved in the imperative: lā trūħ "don't go".
- The possessive suffixes are generally preserved in their Classical forms. For example, bētakom "your (pl) house".
Other features of Hejazi Arabic are:
- Compared to neighboring dialects, urban Hijazi retains more of the short vowels of Modern Standard Arabic, for example:
- samaka "fish", as opposed to bedouin smika or Levantine samake
- darabatu ضربَته "she hit him", as opposed to bedouin dribtah
- aktub "write", Imperative mood, as opposed to bedouin iktib, and Levantine ktub
- ʿʕendakom عندَكُم "in your [plural] possession", as opposed to bedouin ʿindikom, Egyptian ʿandoko, and Levantine ʿandkun
- The plural first person pronoun is niḥna (نحنا) or eḥna (إحنا), as opposed to the bedouin ḥənna (حنّا) and ənna (إنّا).
- When used to indicate location, the preposition fi في Pronounced as an "f" فـ when connected to a noun is preferred to b بـ (f-Makkah "in Mecca"). In bedouin dialects, the preference differs by region.
- Less restriction on the distribution of /i/ and /u/.
- The glottal stop can be added to final syllables ending in a vowel as a way of emphasising.
- The qaaf (ق) of Modern Standard Arabic is pronounced /g/ except in certain words.
Hejazi vocabulary derives primarily from Classical Arabic Semitic roots. The urban Hejazi vocabulary differs in some respect from that of other dialects in the Arabian Peninsula. For example, there are fewer specialized terms related to desert life, and more terms related to seafaring and fishing. Due to the diverse origins of the inhabitants of Hejazi cities, few borrowings from the dialects of Egypt, Syria, and Yemen exist but now are fading due to the influence of Modern Standard Arabic. and even the Five centuries of Turkish rule only had a slight influence on Hejazi and most of the loanwords are names of objects (with a change of meaning sometimes) as in : جزمة /d͡ʒazma/ "shoe" from çizme /t͡ʃizme/ originally meaning "boot" or كُبري /kobri/ "overpass" from köprü /køpry/ originally meaning "bridge".
Certain distinctive particles and vocabulary in Hejazi are قد /ɡiːd/ or /ɡed/ "already", دحين /daħiːn/ or /daħeːn/ "now", and لسه /lessa/ "not yet".
General Hejazi Expressions include بالتوفيق /bettawfiːg/ "good luck", لو سمحت /law samaħt/ "please/excuse me" to a male, شكرًا /ʃukran/ "thank you", عفوًا /ʕafwan/ "you are welcome (response)", إيوه /iːwa/ "yes", لأ /laʔ/ "no".
Portmanteau, also called a blend in linguistics,is a combination of taking parts (but not all) of two (or more) words or their sounds (phones) and their meanings into a single new, it a common feature in Hejazi especially in making new Interrogative words examples include :
- إيش (eːsh, what), from أي (ay, which) and شيء ( shay' , thing).
- ليش (leːsh, why), from لـ (li, for) and أي (ay, which) and شيء ( shay' , thing).
- إلين (eleːn, until), from إلى (ilaː, to) and أن (an, that).
- دحين (daħeːn, until), from ذا (thaː, this) and الحين (alħiːn, part of time).
- علشان/عشان (ʕashaːn/ʕalashaːn, because), from على (ʕalaː, on) and شأن (shaʔn, matter).
- إيوه (iːwa, yes), from إي (iː, yes) and و (wa , and) and الله (allaːh, god).
The Cardinal number system in Hejazi is much more simplified than the Classical Arabic
|1 واحد||/waːħed/||11 احدعش||/eħdaʕaʃ/||10 عشرة||/ʕaʃara/||100 مية||/mijja/|
|2 اتنين||/etneːn/||12 اطنعش||/etˤnaʕaʃ/||20 عشرين||/ʕeʃriːn/||200 ميتين||/mijteːn/ or /mijjateːn/|
|3 تلاتة||/talaːta/||13 طلطّعش||/tˤalatˤtˤaʕaʃ/||30 تلاتين||/talaːtiːn/||300 تلتمية||/toltumijja/|
|4 أربعة||/arbaʕa/||14 أربعطعش||/arbaʕtˤaʕaʃ/||40 أربعين||/arbiʕiːn/||400 أربعمية||/orbuʕmijja/|
|5 خمسة||/xamsa/||15 خمسطعش||/xamastˤaʕaʃ/||50 خمسين||/xamsiːn/||500 خمسمية||/xomsumijja/|
|6 ستة||/setta/||16 سطّعش||/setˤtˤaʕaʃ/||60 ستين||/settiːn/||600 ستمية||/sottumijja/|
|7 سبعة||/sabʕa/||17 سبعطعش||/sabaʕtˤaʕaʃ/||70 سبعين||/sabʕiːn/||700 سبعمية||/sobʕumijja/|
|8 تمنية||/tamanja/||18 طمنطعش||/tˤamantˤaʕaʃ/||80 تمانين||/tamaːniːn/||800 تمنمية||/tomnumijja/|
|9 تسعة||/tesʕa/||19 تسعطعش||/tesaʕtˤaʕaʃ/||90 تسعين||/tesʕiːn/||900 تسعمية||/tosʕumijja/|
|10 عشرة||/ʕaʃara/||20 عشرين||/ʕeʃriːn/||100 مية||/mijja/||1000 ألف||/alf/|
A system similar to the German numbers system is used for other numbers between 20 and above : 21 is واحد و عشرين /waːħed u ʕeʃriːn/ which literally mean ('one and twenty') and 458 is أربعمية و خمسة و تمانين /orbuʕmijja u xamsa u tamaːniːn/ which literally mean ('four hundred and five and eighty').
Unlike Classical Arabic,the only رقم [rage̞m] ('number') that is gender specified in Hejazi and has two forms is number 1 which is واحد and وحدة as in كتاب واحد /kitaːb waːħed/ ('one book') or سيارة وحدة /sajjara waħda/ ('one car').
- for 2 as in 'two cars' 'two years' 'two houses' etc. the dual form is used instead of the number with the suffix ēn /eːn/ or tēn /teːn/ (if the noun ends with a feminine /a/) as in كتابين /kitaːbeːn/ ('two books') or سيارتين /sajjarateːn/ ('two cars').
- for numbers 3 to 10 the noun following the number is in plural form as in اربعة كتب /arbaʕa kotub/ ('4 books') or عشرة سيارات /ʕaʃara sajjaraːt/ ('10 cars').
- for numbers 11 and above the noun following the number is in singular form as in :-
- a- from 11 to 19 an ـر [ar] is added to the end of the numbers as in اربعطعشر كتاب /arbaʕtˤaʕʃar kitaːb/ ('14 books') or احدعشر سيارة /eħdaʕʃar sajjaːra/ ('11 cars').
- b- for 100s a [t] is added to the end of the numbers before the counted nouns as in تلتمية سيارة /toltumijjat sajjaːra/ ('300 cars').
- c- other numbers are simply added to the singular form of the noun واحد و عشرين كتاب /waːħed u ʕeʃriːn kitaːb/ ('21 books').
Hejazi Arabic has 47 phonemes if all phonemes (native and foreign) and allophones used by most urban Hejazi speakers are counted and they are :-
- 34 consonant phonemes: 26 native consonants + 4 consonants used in Classical Arabic words (/θ/,/ð/,/ðˤ/,/q/) + 3 foreign consonants (not used by all the speakers) (/p/,/v/,/tʃ/) + an allophone (/ɫ/).
- 13 vowel phonemes: 10 monophthongsa (/a, u, i, o, e, aː, uː, iː, oː, eː/) + 2 diphthongs (/aw/, /aj/) and an optional allophone (/ɑː/) not used by all speakers (only occurs in a few foreign words).
|Plosive||voiceless||پ (p)1||ت t||ط tˤ||تش (t͡ʃ)1||ك k||ق q6||ء ʔ|
|voiced||ب b||د d||ض dˤ||ج d͡ʒ2||ق ɡ|
|Fricative||voiceless||ف f||ث θ3||س s||ص sˤ||ش ʃ||خ x||ح ħ||هـ h|
|voiced||ڤ (v)1||ذ ð4||ظ ðˤ5||ز z||ظ zˤ||غ ɣ||ع ʕ|
|Nasal||م m||ن n|
|Lateral||ل l||ل (ɫ)|
|Approximant||ي j||و w|
- ^1 the phonemes /p/, /v/ , /t͡ʃ/ are only found in loanwords and they can be pronounced as /b/ [ب], /f/ [ف] and /ʃ/ [ش] respectively depending on the speaker.
- ^2 the phonemes /dʒ/ and the trill /r/ are realised as a /ʒ/ and a tap /ɾ/ respectively by some speakers.
- ^3 the dental consonant ث is mostly rendered /t/ and rarely /s/ or kept /θ/ in Classical Arabic borrowings, it remains dental in the countryside.
- ^4 the dental consonant ذ is mostly rendered /d/ and sometimes /z/ or kept /ð/ in Classical Arabic borrowings, it remains dental in the countryside.
- ^5 the dental consonant ظ is mostly rendered /dˤ/ and sometimes /zˤ/ or kept /ðˤ/ in Classical Arabic borrowings, it remains dental in the countryside.
- ^6 the phoneme /q/ occurs only in few words and it is mostly rendered as /g/ by most of the speakers.
- ^7 the phoneme [ɫ] ل is an allophone of [l] in the words الله [aɫɫaːh] ('god') and يلاّ [jaɫɫa] ('come on') .
Hejazi has five (or three short vowels)a /a/, /u/, /i/, /o/ and /e/, and five long vowels /aː/, /uː/, /iː/, /oː/ and /eː/ with length as distinctive feature, and two diphthongs حروف اللين /aw/ and /aj/. Unlike other Arabic dialects, Hejazi did not develop allophones of the vowels /a/ and /aː/, except in a few number of foreign words where the long /aː/ is optionally pronounced [ɑː], and retains most of the long and short vowels of Classical Arabic with no vowel reduction. Most of the two diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/ from the classical period underwent monophthongization and are realised as the long vowels /eː/ and /oː/, respectively but they still occur as diphthongs when followed by a consonant as in حيْوان [ħajwaːn] ('animal') and موْعد [mawʕe̞d] ('appointment'). The classical short /u/ and /i/ split into two phonemes each, with /u/ splitting into word-medial [u] (as in هو [huwwa]) and word-initial and medial [o̞] (as in أم [o̞m] and حب [ħo̞b]), and /i/ splitting into word-medial [i] (as in هي [hijja]) and word-initial and medial [e̞] (as in إنت [e̞nta] and طِب [tˤe̞b]), though this split is not found in all of the accents of Hejazi.
- /a/ is pronounced either as an open front vowel [a] or an open central vowel [ä] depending on the speaker's hometown.
- /o/ and /e/ and their long counterparts are pronounced as true mid vowels [o̞] and [e̞] respectively.
- ^1 [ɑː] is an optional allophone of [aː] in some loanwords such as ألمانيا [almɑːnja] ('germany') and يابان [jaːbɑːn] ('japan').
- ^a Free variation occurs depending on the speaker's home town accent (Medina, Mecca, Jeddah, Ta'if) between the short front vowels /e/ and /i/ as in words like طِب which can be pronounced [tˤe̞b] or [tˤib], and the same occurs with short back vowels /o/ and /u/ such as in the word حُب can be pronounced [ħo̞b] or [ħub], but that doesn't apply to the vowels /eː/ and /iː/ and the vowels /oː/ and /uː/ where the four phonemes are considered as separate phonemes by all the speakers.
the linking conjunction و ('and') pronounced [u] is often linked with the consonant (before it) or the vowel (before or after it) or for emphasis only left as it is :-
- انا و انتي /ana u enti/ ('me and you') is either pronounced as [anaw e̞nti] where the [u] connected to the vowel before it or pronounced as [ana we̞nti] where the [u] connected to the vowel after it or left as it is for emphasis [ana u e̞nti].
- واحد و خمسين /waːħed u xamsiːn/ ('fifty one') is either pronounced [waːħe̞du xamsiːn] or for emphasis [waːħe̞d u xamsiːn].
- خمسة و سبعين /xamsa u sabʕiːn/ ('seventy five') is either pronounced [xamsaw sabʕiːn] or for emphasis [xamsa u sabʕiːn].
In Hejazi Arabic, personal pronouns have 8 forms simplified from the original Classical Arabic 12 pronouns. In singular, the 2nd and 3rd persons differentiate gender, while the 1st person and plural do not.
Hejazi Arabic verbs (فعل fiʻl; pl. أفعال afʻāl), as the verbs in other Semitic languages, and as the entire vocabulary in those languages, are based on a set of three, four also five consonants (but mainly three consonants) called a root (triliteral or quadriliteral according to the number of consonants). The root communicates the basic meaning of the verb, e.g. k-t-b 'write', ʼ-k-l 'eat'. Changes to the vowels in between the consonants, along with prefixes or suffixes, specify grammatical functions such as :
- Two tenses (past, present; present progressive is indicated by the prefix ba/be, future is indicated by the prefix ħa)
- Two voices (active, passive)
- Two genders (masculine, feminine)
- Three persons (first, second, third)
- Two numbers (singular, plural)
- Two moods (indicative, imperative).
There are two classes in hejazi verb conjugation : Sound Verbs (don't have y or w in their root letters) and Weak verbs ( that have a y or w as one or more of the root radicals).
Hejazi Has simplified the 3 Classical Arabic present verb moods (indicative رفع, subjunctive نصب, jussive جزم) into a single (indicative رفع) present mood by adopting the old (subjunctive نصب) forms with no (/-n/) ending, and has added a present progressive which is not part of the Classical Arabic grammar. And has simplified 3 grammatical number categories in verbs into 2 (Singular and Plural) instead of the Classical (Singular, Dual and Plural).
an example of one of the forms is :
Regular verbs, form I
Form I verbs which are the most common in Hejazi and the simplest have a given vowel pattern for past (a and e) to present (o or a or e). Combinations of each exist:
|a||o||ḍarab ضرب - yeḍrob يضرب to beat|
|a||a||raħam رحم - yerħam يرحم to forgive|
|a||e||ġasal غسل - yeġsel يغسل to wash|
|e||a||fehem فهم - yefham يفهم to understand|
|e||e||sereʕ سرع - yesreʕ يسرع to speed up|
An example from the root k-t-b the verb 'katab/yektob 'write' (which is a regular sound verb):
|Tense/Mood||Past||Present (Indicative)||Present (Progressive)||Future||Imperative|
- The Active Participles قاعد [gaːʕe̞d] قاعدة [gaːʕda] قاعدين [gaːʕdiːn] can be used instead of the prefix بـ [ba/be] as in قاعد اكتب [gaːʕe̞d akto̞b] ('i'm writing') instead of بكتب [bakto̞b] ('i'm writing') without any change in the meaning.
- the 3rd person past plural suffix -u is turned into an -ō (long o) before being attached to pronoun suffixes. katabu [katabu] ('they wrote') → katabōli [katabo̞ːli] ('they wrote to me')
Example: katab/yektob "write": non-finite forms
|Number/Gender||اسم الفاعل Active Participle||اسم المفعول Passive Participle||مصدر Verbal Noun|
|Masc. Sg.||kāteb كاتب||maktūb مكتوب||kitāba كتابة|
|Fem. Sg.||kātb-a كاتبة||maktūb-a مكتوبة|
|Pl.||kātb-īn كاتبين||maktūb-īn مكتوبين|
Active participles act as adjectives, and so they must agree with their subject. An active participle can be used in several ways:
- to describe a state of being (understanding; knowing).
- to describe what someone is doing right now (going, leaving) as in some verbs like رحت ("i went") the active participle رايح ("i'm going") is used instead of present continuous form to give the same meaning of an ongoing action.
- to indicate that someone/something is in a state of having done something (having put something somewhere, having lived somewhere for a period of time).
Enclitic forms of object pronouns are suffixes that (الضمائر المتصلة) are affixed to various parts of speech, with varying meanings:
- To the construct state of nouns, where they have the meaning of possessive demonstratives, e.g. "my, your, his".
- To verbs, where they have the meaning of direct object pronouns, e.g. "me, you, him".
- To verbs, where they have the meaning of indirect object pronouns, e.g. "(to/for) me,(to/for) you, (to/for) him".
- To prepositions.
Unlike Egyptian Arabic, in Hejazi no more than 1 pronoun can be suffixed to a word.
1-When a noun ends in a feminine /a/ vowel as in مدرسة [madrasa] ('school') : a /t/ is added before the suffixes as in → مدرستي [madrasati] ('my school'), مدرسته [madrasatu] ('his school'), مدرستها [madrasatha] ('her school') and so on.
2-After a word ends in a vowel (other than the /-a/ of the feminine nouns), the vowel is lengthened, and the pronouns in (Parentheses) are used instead of their original counterparts :-
- a- the possessive pronouns as in كرسي [kursi] ('chair') → كرسيه [kursiː] ('his chair'), كرسينا [kursiːna] ('our chair'), كرسيكي [kursiːki] ('your chair' f.)
- b- the direct object pronouns لاحقنا [laːħagna] ('we followed') → لاحقناه [laːħagnaː] ('we followed him'), لاحقناكي [laːħagnaːki] ('we followed you' feminine).
- c- the indirect object pronouns رحنا [ro̞ħna] ('we went') → رحناله [ro̞ħnaːlu] ('we went to him').
3-After a word that ends in two consonants, or which has a long vowel in the last syllable, /-a-/ is inserted before the 5 suffixes which begin with a consonant /-ni/, /-na/, /-ha/, /-hom/, /-kom/ :-
- a-the possessive pronouns كتاب [kitaːb] ('book') → كتابها [kitaːbaha] ('her book'), كتابهم [kitaːbaho̞m] ('their book'), كتابكم [kitaːbako̞m] ('your book' plural), كتابنا [kitaːbana] ('our book').
- b-the direct object pronouns عرفت [ʕe̞re̞ft] ('you knew') → عرفتني [ʕe̞re̞ftani] ('you knew me'), عرفتنا [ʕe̞re̞ftana] ('you knew us'), عرفتها [ʕe̞re̞ftaha] ('you knew her'), عرفتهم [ʕe̞re̞ftaho̞m] ('you knew them').
4-only with indirect object pronouns when a verb ends in two consonants as in كتبت [katabt] ('i wrote') : an /-al-/ is added before the Indirect object pronoun suffixes → كتبتلّه [katabtallu] ('i wrote to him') , كتبتلهم [katabtallaho̞m] ('i wrote to them').
5-only with indirect object pronouns when a verb has a long vowel in the last syllable as in راح [raːħ] ('he went') : the vowel is shortened before the suffixes → رحلها [raħlaha] ('he went to her')
- ^1 the colon between the (Parentheses) indicate that only the vowel is lengthened, since the word-final ـه [h] is silent in this position.
- ^2 if a noun ends with a vowel (other than the /-a/ of the feminine nouns) that is /u/ or /a/ then the suffix (-ya) is used as in أبو [abu] ('father') becomes ابويا [abuːja] ('my father') but if it ends with an /i/ then the suffix (-yya) is added as in [kursijja] ('my chair').
- it is uncommon for Hejazi nouns to end in a vowel other than the /-a/ of the feminine nouns.
Hejazi is written using the Arabic alphabet, like other varieties of Arabic, Hejazi does not have a standard form of writing and people may alternate between the three letters ذ ,ث and ظ and their alternatives when writing a word, whether to write it according to its etymology or the phoneme used while pronouncing it, and there is an alternation between writing some words that end in a vowel, whether to add a vowel at the end of the word or write its Classical Arabic form as in the word ('you') for singular female which can be written as انتِ or انتي. In pronunciation speakers mainly alternate between the pronunciations of the dental letters as well ث /θ/, ذ /ð/ and ظ /ðˤ/ and their 3 alternative pronunciation each. The table below shows the Hejazi alphabet and each alternative letter and pronunciation for each phoneme :-
|/ʔ/ see Hamza||سأل "he asked"||[saʔal]|
/a/ word-final (except in two-letter words)
انا "I am"
|/θ/ in Classical Arabic words (original sound)1||مثال "example"||[miθaːl] can be pronounced [misaːl]|
|/t/ can be written ت||ثلاثة "three" can be written تلاتة||[talaːta]|
|/s/ can be written 1س||حادث "accident" can be written حادس||[ħaːde̞s] can be pronounced [ħaːde̞θ]|
|/d͡ʒ/ or /ʒ/||جرس "bell"||[d͡ʒaras]|
|/ð/ in Classical Arabic words (original sound)||ذكر "male"||[ðakar]|
|/d/ can be written د||ذيل "tail" can be written ديل||[de̞ːl]|
|/z/ can be written ز||ذوق "taste" can be written زوق||[zo̞ːg]|
|/r/ or /ɾ/||رمل "sand"||[rame̞l]|
|/ðˤ/ in Classical Arabic words (original sound)||ظاهرة "phenomenon"||[ðˤaːhra] can be pronounced [zˤaːhra]|
|/dˤ/ can be written ض||ظل "shade" can be written ضل||[dˤe̞l]|
|/q/ only in few words (original sound)||قلعة "castle"||[qalʕa] can be pronounced [galʕa]|
|(silent) only word-final in 3rd person masculine singular pronouns,
it indicates word-final long vowels.
|عليه "on him"
كتابُه "his book"
/u/ word-final (except in two-letter words)
/i/ word-final (except in two-letter words)
some words are an exception to these rules such as ضبط ("it worked") is pronounced /zˤabatˤ/ and not /dˤabatˤ/ and سبورة ("whiteboard/blackboard") is pronounced /sˤabbuːra/ and not /sabbuːra/. Short vowels are written as diacritics :-
- ـَ above the letter for /a/.
- ـُ above the letter for /u/ and /o/.
- ـِ under the letter for /i/ and /e/.
- ^1 for the letter ث the phonemes /θ/ and /s/ are interchangeable with speakers mostly preferring one sound to another or using both.
The varieties of Arabic spoken by the bedouin tribes of the Hejaz region are relatively under-studied. However, the speech of some tribes shows much closer affinity to other bedouin dialects, particularly those of neighboring Najd, than to those of the Hejazi cities. The dialects of northern Hejazi tribes merge into those of Jordan and Sinai, while the dialects in the south merge with those of 'Asir and Najd. It is also worth noting that many large tribal confederations in Najd and eastern Arabia are recent migrants from the Hejaz, including the tribes of Utaybah, Mutayr, Harb, and Bani Khalid. In earlier times, many other Arab tribes also came from the Hejaz, including Kinanah, Juhayna, Banu Sulaym, and Ghatafan. Also, not all speakers of these bedouin dialects are figuratively nomadic bedouins; some are simply sedentary sections that live in rural areas, and thus speak dialects similar to those of their bedouin neighbors.
- Hejazi Arabic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Hejazi Arabic". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
- "Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary". Clive Holes. 2001.
- Kees Versteegh, The Arabic Language, NITLE Arab World Project, by the permission of Edinburgh University Press, 
- Bruce Ingham, "Some Characteristics of Meccan Speech", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 34, No. 2. (1971), pp. 273–297. 
- Margaret K. Omar, Saudi Arabic: Urban Hijazi Dialect, Basic Course , ISBN 0-88432-739-6
- Muhammad Swaileh A. Alzaidi, Information Structure and Intonation in Hijazi Arabic.