Dame Helen Gwynne-Vaughan
Portrait by William Orpen, 1918
|Birth name||Helen Charlotte Isabella Fraser|
|Born||21 January 1879|
|Died||26 August 1967(aged 88)|
|Service/||Auxiliary Territorial Service|
|Unit||First Chief Controller, Queen Mary's Army Auxiliary Corps (QMAAC) in France|
|Commands held||Women's Royal Air Force|
|Spouse(s)||David Thomas Gwynne-Vaughan|
Dame Helen Charlotte Isabella Gwynne-Vaughan, GBE (née Fraser; 21 January 1879 – 26 August 1967) was a prominent English botanist and mycologist. During the First World War, she served in the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps and then as Commandant of the Women's Royal Air Force (WRAF) from 1918 to 1919. During the Second World War, from 1939 to 1941, she served as Chief Controller of the Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS).
Early life and education
Helen Charlotte Isabella Fraser was born on 21 January 1879 in Westminster, London, England. She was the elder daughter of The Honourable Captain Arthur H. Fraser (died 1884) and Lucy Jane (died 1939): her father was an army officer and her mother an novelist. In 1887, following her father's death, her mother married for a second time to Francis Hay-Newton, a diplomat. Due to her step father's career, she spent a large amount of her youth living abroad and was educated mainly by governesses. From 1895 to 1896, she was educated at Cheltenham Ladies' College, an all-girls independent boarding school in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire.
In 1899, she attended the ladies' department of King's College, London to study for the University of Oxford entrance exams. However, she stayed on at King's College as one of its first female students to study botany and zoology. She was awarded the Carter Medal in 1902, and graduated from the University of London with a Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree in 1904. She also studied under Margaret Jane Benson, head of the Department of Botany at Royal Holloway College. She was awarded a Doctor of Science (DSc) degree in 1907.
Having completed her bachelor's degree, she spent 1904 working as a demonstrator for mycologist V. H. Blackman at University College, London. She moved to Royal Holloway College in 1905 as a demonstrator to botanist Margaret Jane Benson. She was promoted to assistant lecturer in 1906. In 1907, she was appointed a lecturer in botany at University College, Nottingham. In 1909, she was named head of the botany department at Birkbeck College, London. From 1917 to 1919, she took a break from academia to serve during the First World War.
Having returned from the War, in 1920 she applied for the Regius Professor of Botany at the University of Aberdeen; she was not successful. Instead, she returned to Birkbeck College and was appointed Professor of Botany in 1921. She continued her studies on fungi genetics. She was Head of Department from 1921 to 1939 and again from 1941 to 1944. She retired from full-time academia in 1944 and was appointed Professor Emeritus by the University of London.
In 1917, she was appointed Controller of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps in France, alongside Mona Chalmers Watson, Chief Controller of the WAAC in London For her service she was the first woman to be awarded a military DBE in January 1918. She served reluctantly as Commandant of the Women's Royal Air Force (WRAF) from September 1918 until December 1919.
Gwynne-Vaughan was interested in politics. She stood in the 1922 London County Council election as a Municipal Reform Party councillor for North Camberwell: she was not elected. She stood as the Unionist parliamentary candidate for Camberwell North in the 1922, 1923, and 1924 General Elections. She lost by 254 votes in 1922, by 4686 in 1923, and by 3736 in 1924.
She was also active in Girl Guides and was honoured with the Silver Fish. In 1930, Gwynne-Vaughan chaired the Guides' Sixth World Conference. At this conference, the constitution of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts was agreed and Olave Baden-Powell was unanimously voted World Chief Guide.
In 1911, she married David Thomas Gwynne-Vaughan (1871–1915), who she had succeeded as head of the botany department at Birkbeck College, London. Her husband died from tuberculosis after four years of marriage, and they did not have any children.
Honours and distinctions
In the 1919 King's Birthday Honours, Gwynne-Vaughan was appointed a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBE) "in recognition of distinguished services rendered during the War", and was therefore granted the title dame. In the 1929 King's Birthday Honours, she was promoted to Dame Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire (GBE) "for public and scientific services". 
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- "Gwynne-Vaughan, Dame Helen Charlotte Isabella, (21 Jan. 1879–26 Aug. 1967), Fellow of King's College, London; Fellow of Birkbeck College; Professor Emeritus, University of London". Gwynne-Vaughan, Dame Helen Charlotte Isabella. Who Was Who. Oxford University Press. 1 December 2007. doi:10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U50455.
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- Strullu-Derrien, C; Kenrick,P; Pressel, S; Duckett, J.G; Rioult, J.P; Strullu, D.G. (2014). "Fungal associations in Horneophyton ligneri from the Rhynie Chert (c. 407 million year old) closely resemble those in extant lower land plants: novel insights into ancestral plant–fungus symbioses". New Phytologist. 203 (3): 964–79. doi:10.1111/nph.12805. PMID 24750009.
- Page WM. (1960). "Pleurage gwynne-vaughaniae sp.nov". Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 43 (3): 506–508. doi:10.1016/s0007-1536(60)80032-0.
- Kerr, Rose (1976). Story of the Girl Guides 1908-1938. London: Girl Guides Association.
- Noakes, Lucy (2006). Women in the British Army; War and the Gentle Sex, 1907-1948. London: Routledge.
- Creese, Mary R. S. (September 2004). "Vaughan, Dame Helen Charlotte Isabella Gwynne- (1879–1967)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2010-06-27.
| Commandant, Women's Royal Air Force
| Director, Auxiliary Territorial Service
Mrs Jean Knox