in the Polish People's Army uniform
Fajga Mindla Danielak
28 February 1919
|Died||26 November 2008 (aged 89)|
|Resting place||Wolvercote Cemetery, Oxford|
|Known for||State Security Services|
|Spouse(s)||Franciszek Jóźwiak Włodzimierz Brus|
Helena Wolińska-Brus (28 February 1919 – 26 November 2008), born Fajga Mindla Danielak, was a military prosecutor in postwar communist Poland with the rank of lieutenant-colonel (podpułkownik), involved in Stalinist regime show trials of the 1950s. She has been implicated in the arrest and execution of many Polish World War II resistance fighters including key figures in Poland’s wartime Home Army.
Post-communist Poland sought the extradition of Wolińska-Brus from the United Kingdom on three separate occasions between 1999 and 2008. The official charges against her were initiated by the Institute of National Remembrance, which investigates both Nazi and Communist crimes committed in Poland between the years 1939 and 1989. Wolińska-Brus was accused of being an "accessory to a judicial murder".
Wolińska-Brus was born to a Jewish family in Warsaw, where she later married Włodzimierz Brus (born Beniamin Zylberberg). They became separated during the German occupation of Poland after Wolińska-Brus escaped from the Warsaw Ghetto. She joined the communist People's Guard and became the mistress of its commander, Franciszek Jóźwiak, whom she married in 1942, thinking that her first husband was dead. However, she met Brus again in 1944 and they eventually remarried in 1956, after she had separated from Jóźwiak, now a deputy minister of the Stalinist Secret Police (1945–1949) and a member of the Politburo of the governing communist Polish United Workers' Party (until 1968). She was dismissed from her job as prosecutor during the Polish October of 1956.
In the 1960's, her husband Włodzimierz Brus moved away from support of the Party hierarchy and openly supported such dissidents as Jacek Kuroń, Karol Modzelewski, Leszek Kołakowski and Krzysztof Pomian, and was expelled from the Party in 1968.
Wolińska-Brus and her first husband left Poland in 1971, after the 1968 Polish political crisis and they spent the rest of their lives in the United Kingdom. Wlodzimierz Brus became a professor of economics at the University of Oxford and died in 2007. Wolińska-Brus lived in Oxford until her death, having previously acquired UK citizenship.
Wolińska-Brus was accused of being an "accessory to a judicial murder", which is classified as a Stalinist crime and a crime of genocide, and is punishable by up to ten years in prison. She was also accused of organising the unlawful arrest, investigation and trial of Poland's wartime general Emil August Fieldorf, a commander of the underground Polish Home Army during World War II. Fieldorf was executed on 24 February 1953, following a show-trial, and buried in a secret location – his family was never shown the body. A 1956 report commissioned during Poland's period of de-Stalinization concluded that Wolińska-Brus had violated the rule of law by her involvement in biased investigations and had also staged questionable trials that frequently resulted in executions.
The first of three applications for Wolińska-Brus' extradition to Poland was made in 1999, initiated by an investigation carried out by the Institute of National Remembrance. A second application was submitted in 2001. The Polish indictments were based the claim that Wolińska-Brus had fabricated evidence which led to the execution of general Emil Fieldorf and the wrongful arrest and imprisonment of 24 other anti-Nazi resistance fighters. Both requests were refused by the Home Office; in particular, because of her advanced age and the long period of time that had elapsed since the alleged crimes occurred (the Polish authorities considered the latter reason to be unfair, given that any proper investigation of her alleged crimes became possible only after the fall of communism in Poland in 1989).
In an interview with The Guardian, Wolińska-Brus said she would not return to "the country of Auschwitz and Birkenau", claiming that she would not receive a fair trial in Poland. She also claimed that her accusers were motivated by anti-Semitism. The interview contained a quote from Fieldorf's daughter, Maria, accusing Wolińska-Brus of having been "one of those careerists who are the pillars of any dictatorship."
Accusations of anti-Semitism were rebutted by, among others, Władysław Bartoszewski, Polish Foreign Affairs Minister (1995, 2000–2001), soldier of the underground Polish Home Army, Auschwitz survivor, a Righteous Among the Nations and an honorary citizen of Israel, who had also been prosecuted by Wolińska-Brus: "On my indictment affidavit, in red pencil, is the signature of Helena Wolińska. Affirming the accusations against me, she knew that I was co-founder of the Polish Council to Aid Jews. I am a living example of the fact that the statements made by Wolińska and certain people around her about anti-Semitism are nonsense."
The Polish media and government also criticised the inefficiency of the international extradition process.
In 2004, Poland joined the European Union, which made possible a third attempt to extradite Wolińska-Brus. In January 2006 her prosecutorial pension was revoked and later that year Polish president Lech Kaczyński also revoked the Polonia Restituta decoration that she was awarded by the Polish communist authorities in 1954. In 2007 the Institute of National Remembrance asked Polish prosecutors to issue a European Arrest Warrant (EAW) against Wolińska-Brus, which was duly issued on 20 November 2007. Helena Wolińska-Brus died on 26 November 2008 in Oxford. Although the funeral was scheduled for 5 December 2008, she was buried on 3 December in a closed ceremony, at Wolvercote Cemetery, Oxford, with only a few family members attending.
- "Investigation against Ms. Helena Wolińska-Brus". Institute of National Remembrance. 1 August 2001. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
- Applebaum, Anne (6 December 1998). "The Three Lives of Helena Brus". The Sunday Telegraph.
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- Based on a 1957 report of the "Mazur Committee" called in Communist Poland to investigate the liability of former employees of Stalinist military prosecutors offices and courts. (Komisja Mazura – in Polish), Raport – full text (in Polish) Archived 27 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- Craig, By Olga (25 November 2007). "Polish enemies fight over Gen Emil Fieldorf" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
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- Hundley, Tom; Manetti, Christina (8 January 2008). "From Holocaust to hunted at 88". Chicago Tribune.
- Zaorska, Aldona (2012). Sąsiedzi. Najbardziej okrutni oprawcy polskich patriotów. Warszawa. ISBN 978-83-932704-4-6.
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- "Constitutional Watch: Poland". East European Constitutional Review. New York University School of Law. 8 (1–2). 1999. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012. – a brief review of the case brought against Wolińska-Brus
- "Polish enemies fight over Gen Emil Fieldorf". The Sunday Telegraph. 25 November 2007. Archived from the original on 24 November 2007. Retrieved 25 November 2007.