|Died||4 November 1890 (aged 69)|
London, United Kingdom
|Resting place||Highgate Cemetery|
|Known for||Housekeeper of Karl Marx, later household manager and political confidante of Frederich Engels|
Frederick Lewis Demuth
Henry Frederick Demuth
June 23, 1851
London, United Kingdom
|Died||January 28, 1929 (aged 77)|
Upper Clapton, London, United Kingdom
|Organization||Amalgamated Engineering Union|
|Parent(s)||Helene Demuth |
Karl Marx (alleged)
Helene Demuth was born of peasant parents on December 31, 1820 in Sankt Wendel in today's Saarland. As a teenage girl she was adopted into the von Westphalen household, to work as a maid. In 1843 Karl Marx married Jenny von Westphalen. Helene Demuth joined their household in April 1845 in Brussels, where she was sent by Jenny's mother. She stayed with the Marxes as a lifelong housekeeper, friend, and political confidante, and was commonly known to the family by the nicknames Lenchen or Nim.
After Marx's death in March 1883, Helene Demuth moved to Engels's home, where she ran the household. The pair worked in tandem to organize and arrange for the publication of Marx's literary estate, discovering in the process the manuscript from which Engels was able to reconstruct the second volume of Das Kapital.
In October 1890, Helene was diagnosed with cancer. She died in London on November 4 that year at the age of 69. In accordance with Jenny Marx's wishes, she was buried in the Marx family grave and later re-interred in the tomb of Karl Marx at Highgate Cemetery.
On June 23, 1851 Helene Demuth gave birth to a boy, Henry Frederick Demuth, the birth certificate leaving the name of the father blank. Most scholars accept that the child had been sired by Karl Marx, a view that reflects surviving correspondence from the Marx family and their wider circle, as well as the fact that Marx's wife had been on a trip abroad nine months prior to the birth. The baby was given Friedrich Engels first name, and family correspondence suggests that Engels, a bachelor living in Manchester and Karl Marx's closest personal friend, claimed fatherhood of the boy – possibly in an effort to preserve the Marx’s marriage.
The child's paternity however remains a subject of discussion, with the academic Terrell Carver stating that, although it has been claimed since 1962 that Marx was the father, "this is not well founded on the documentary materials available", adding that "the gossip" is not supported by "direct evidence that bears unambiguously on this matter".
Shortly after the birth, the baby, Frederick Lewis Demuth (1851−1929), was placed with a working class foster family in London named Lewis. He later trained as a toolmaker, and was active in the Amalgamated Engineering Union and a founder member of the Hackney Labour Party. Eleanor Marx came to know him some time after her father's death and made him a family friend.
Notes and references
- Hal Draper, "Helene Demuth," in The Marx-Engels Glossary: Volume III of the Marx-Engels Cyclopedia. New York: Schocken Books, 1986; pg. 55.
- Wheen, Francis (1999). Karl Marx. Fourth Estate. p. 170-176. ISBN 9781841151144.
- Saul Padover (trans. and ed.), "Introduction: Marx, the Human Side," to Karl Marx, On Education, Women, and Children. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co., 1975; pg. xxv.
- Carver, Terrell (1991). "Reading Marx: Life and Works". In Carver, Terrell (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Marx. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 11. ISBN 9780521366946. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Draper, "Frederick Demuth," in The Marx-Engels Glossary, pg. 55.