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Erepta setiliris Reunion 0410.jpg
Five worn shells of Erepta setiliris at Réunion island
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Heterobranchia

clade Euthyneura
clade Panpulmonata
clade Eupulmonata
clade Stylommatophora
clade Sigmurethra
clade limacoid clade

Superfamily: Helicarionoidea
Family: Helicarionidae
Bourguignat, 1877[1]

Helicarionidae is a family of air-breathing land snails or semi-slugs, terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Helicarionoidea.[2]


The distribution of Helicarionidae includes the eastern Palearctic, Malagasy, India, south-eastern Asia, Hawaii, and Australia.[3]


Species of snails within this family make and use love darts made of chitin.

In this family, the number of haploid chromosomes lies between 21 and 30 (according to the values in this table).[4]


The following two subfamilies were recognized in the taxonomy of Bouchet & Rocroi (2005):[2]

  • subfamily Helicarioninae Bourguignat, 1877 - synonyms: Pseudotrochatellinae A. J. Wagner, 1905;[5] Ereptinae Godwin-Austen, 1908;[6] Xestinae Gude & B. B. Woodward, 1921;[7] Sesarinae Thiele, 1931;[8] Nitoridae Iredale, 1937;[9] Epiglyptidae Iredale, 1944;[10] Gudeoconchidae Iredale, 1944[10]
  • subfamily Durgellinae Godwin-Austen, 1888[11]
    • tribe Durgellini Godwin-Austen, 1888 - synonyms: Sitalinae Godwin-Austen, 1900;[12] Sophininae W. Blanford & Godwin-Austen, 1908;[13] Satiellini Schileyko, 2003[14]
    • tribe Girasiini Collinge, 1902[15]


Genera within the family Helicarionidae include:

subfamily Helicarioninae

subfamily Durgellinae

  • tribe Durgellini
  • tribe Girasiini
    • Girasia Gray, 1855 - type genus of the tribe Girasiini[2]

subfamily ?


The following cladogram shows the phylogenic relationships of this family to other families within the limacoid clade:[3]

 limacoid clade 



























  1. ^ Bourguignat J. R. (1877). "Description de deux nouveaux genres algériens, suive d'une classification des families et des genres de Mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles du système européen". Bulletin de la Société des Sciences Physiques et Naturelles de Toulouse 3(1): 49-101. page 64.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Bouchet P.; Rocroi J.-P.; Frýda J.; Hausdorf B.; Ponder W.; Valdés Á. & Warén A. (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology. Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks. 47 (1-2): 1–397. ISBN 3-925919-72-4. ISSN 0076-2997. 
  3. ^ a b Hausdorf B. (2000). "Biogeography of the Limacoidea sensu lato (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora): Vicariance Events and Long-Distance Dispersal". Journal of Biogeography 27(2): 379-390. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00403.x, JSTOR.
  4. ^ G. M. Barker (2001). The Biology of Terrestrial Molluscs. CABI. p. 139. ISBN 978-0-85199-318-8. 
  5. ^ Wagner A. J. (1905). Denkschriften der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Klasse der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften 77: 365.
  6. ^ Godwin-Austen H. H. (1908). "On the Animals of Genera and Species of Mascarene Land-Mollusca belonging to the family Zonitidae, collected by Monsieur E. Dupont". Annals and Magazine of Natural History (8)2: 422-436. 432. Plate 9-11.
  7. ^ Gude G. P. L. K. & Woodward B. B. (1921). "On Helicella, Férussac". Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 14(5-6): 174-190. page 185.
  8. ^ Thiele (1931). Handbuch der systematischen Weichtierkunde 1(2): 620.
  9. ^ Iredale T. (1937). The Australian Zoologist 9(1): 2.
  10. ^ a b Iredale T. (1944). The Australian Zoologist 10(3): page 326 and page 328.
  11. ^ Godwin-Austen H. H. (1888). Land and freshwater Mollusca of India 1(6): 253.
  12. ^ Godwin-Austen H. H. (1900). In: Sykes Mollusca. In: Sharp (ed.) Fauna Hawaiiensis 2(4): 283.
  13. ^ Blanford W. T. & Godwin-Austen H. H. (1908). The fauna of British India. Mollusca. Testacellidae and Zonitidae, page 283.
  14. ^ Schileyko (2003). Treatise on Recent terrestrial pulmonate molluscs, part 10: 1319.
  15. ^ Collinge (1902). The Journal of Malacology 9(3): 71, 73.
  16. ^ Ho Wai Hoong "A Review Of The Land-Snail Fauna Of Singapore" The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 1995 43(1): 91-113

External links[edit]