Heliconia

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Heliconia
Heliconia latispatha (Starwiz).jpg
Heliconia latispatha inflorescences
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Heliconiaceae
Vines[1]
Genus: Heliconia
L.
Synonyms[2]
  • Bihai Mill.
  • Heliconiopsis Miq.
Heliconia psittacorum

Heliconia, derived from the Greek word helikonios, is a genus of flowering plants in the Heliconiaceae. Most of the ca 194 known species[3] are native to the tropical Americas, but a few are indigenous to certain islands of the western Pacific and Maluku.[2] Many species of Heliconia are found in rainforests or tropical wet forests of these regions. Several species are widely cultivated as ornamentals, and a few are naturalized in Florida, Gambia and Thailand.[4] Common names for the genus include lobster-claws, wild plantains or false bird-of-paradise. The last term refers to their close similarity to the bird-of-paradise flowers (Strelitzia). Collectively, these plants are also simply referred to as heliconias.

Description[edit]

These herbaceous plants range from 0.5 to nearly 4.5 meters (1.5–15 feet) tall depending on the species.[5] The simple leaves of these plants are 15–300 cm (6 in-10 ft). They are characteristically long, oblong, alternate, or growing opposite one another on non-woody petioles often longer than the leaf, often forming large clumps with age. Their flowers are produced on long, erect or drooping panicles, and consist of brightly colored waxy bracts, with small true flowers peeping out from the bracts. The growth habit of heliconias is similar to Canna, Strelitzia, and bananas, to which they are related.The flowers can be hues of reds, oranges, yellows, and greens, and are subtended by brightly colored bracts. The plants typically flower during the wet season. These bracts protect the flowers; floral shape often limits pollination to a subset of the hummingbirds in the region.[6]

Leaf[edit]

Leaves in different positions on the plant have a different absorption potential of sunlight for photosynthesis when exposed to different degrees of sunlight.[7]

Flower[edit]

Flowers produce ample nectar that attracts pollinators, most prevalent of which are hummingbirds.[8]

Seeds[edit]

Fruits are blue-purple when ripe and primarily bird dispersed.[9] Studies of post-dispersal seed survival showed that seed size was not a determinant. The highest amount of seed predation came from mammals.[10]

Taxonomy[edit]

The Heliconia are a monophyletic genus in the family Heliconiaceae, but was formerly included in the family Musaceae, which includes the bananas (e.g., Musa, Ensete;[11]). However, the APG system of 1998, and its successor, the APG II system of 2003, confirm the Heliconiaceae as distinct and places them in the order Zingiberales, in the commelinid clade of monocots.

Cladogram: Phylogeny of Zingiberales[12]
Zingiberales


Zingiberineae
Zingiberariae

Zingiberaceae



Costaceae



Cannariae

Cannaceae



Marantaceae





Strelitziineae

Lowiaceae



Strelitziaceae




Heliconiaceae







Musaceae




Species[edit]

Species accepted by Kew Botanic Gardens[4]

  1. Heliconia abaloi -Colombia
  2. Heliconia acuminata - South America
  3. Heliconia adflexa - S Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras
  4. Heliconia aemygdiana - South America
  5. Heliconia albicosta - Costa Rica
  6. Heliconia angelica - Ecuador
  7. Heliconia angusta - SE Brazil
  8. Heliconia apparicioi - Ecuador, Peru, NW Brazil
  9. Heliconia arrecta - Colombia
  10. Heliconia atratensis - Colombia
  11. Heliconia atropurpurea - Colombia, Panama, Costa Rica
  12. Heliconia aurantiaca - S Mexico, Central America
  13. Heliconia auriculata - Bahia
  14. Heliconia badilloi - Colombia
  15. Heliconia barryana - Chiriquí
  16. Heliconia beckneri - Costa Rica
  17. Heliconia bella - Panama
  18. Heliconia berguidoi - E Panama
  19. Heliconia berriziana - Colombia
  20. Heliconia berryi - Napo
  21. Heliconia bihai - West Indies, N South America
  22. Heliconia bourgaeana - S Mexico, Central America
  23. Heliconia brachyantha - Panama, Colombia, Venezuela
  24. Heliconia brenneri - Ecuador
  25. Heliconia burleana - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
  26. Heliconia caltheaphylla - Costa Rica
  27. Heliconia caquetensis - Colombia
  28. Heliconia carajaensis - Pará
  29. Heliconia caribaea - West Indies
  30. Heliconia carmelae - Colombia
  31. Heliconia chartacea - N South America
  32. Heliconia chrysocraspeda - Colombia
  33. Heliconia clinophila - Costa Rica, Panama
  34. Heliconia colgantea - Costa Rica, Panama
  35. Heliconia collinsiana - S Mexico, Central America
  36. Heliconia combinata - Colombia
  37. Heliconia cordata - Colombia, Ecuador
  38. Heliconia crassa - Guatemala
  39. Heliconia cristata - Panama
  40. Heliconia cucullata - Costa Rica, Panama
  41. Heliconia curtispatha - Colombia, Ecuador, Central America
  42. Heliconia danielsiana - Costa Rica, Panama
  43. Heliconia darienensis - Colombia, Panama
  44. Heliconia dasyantha - Suriname, French Guiana
  45. Heliconia densiflora - Trinidad, N South America
  46. Heliconia dielsiana - NW South America
  47. Heliconia donstonea - Colombia, Ecuador
  48. Heliconia episcopalis - South America
  49. Heliconia estherae - Colombia
  50. Heliconia estiletioides - Colombia
  51. Heliconia excelsa - Napo
  52. Heliconia farinosa - SE Brazil, NE Argentina
  53. Heliconia faunorum - Panama
  54. Heliconia fernandezii - Antioquia
  55. Heliconia × flabellata - Ecuador
  56. Heliconia foreroi - Colombia
  57. Heliconia fragilis - Colombia
  58. Heliconia fredberryana - Imbabura
  59. Heliconia fugax - Peru
  60. Heliconia gaiboriana - Los Ríos
  61. Heliconia gigantea - Colombia
  62. Heliconia gloriosa - Peru
  63. Heliconia gracilis - Costa Rica
  64. Heliconia griggsiana - Colombia, Ecuador
  65. Heliconia harlingii - Ecuador
  66. Heliconia hirsuta - Central + South America, Trinidad
  67. Heliconia holmquistiana - Colombia
  68. Heliconia huilensis - Colombia
  69. Heliconia ignescens - Costa Rica, Panama
  70. Heliconia imbricata - Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia
  71. Heliconia impudica - Ecuador
  72. Heliconia indica - Papuasia, Maluku
  73. Heliconia intermedia - Colombia
  74. Heliconia irrasa - Costa Rica, Panama, Nicaragua
  75. Heliconia julianii - N South America
  76. Heliconia juruana - Ecuador, Peru, NW Brazil
  77. Heliconia kautzkiana - Espírito Santo
  78. Heliconia lanata - Solomon Islands
  79. Heliconia lankesteri - Costa Rica, Panama
  80. Heliconia lasiorachis - Colombia, Peru, NW Brazil
  81. Heliconia latispatha - from S Mexico to Peru
  82. Heliconia laufao - Samoa
  83. Heliconia laxa - Colombia
  84. Heliconia lentiginosa - Antioquia
  85. Heliconia librata - S Mexico, Central America
  86. Heliconia lingulata - Peru, Bolivia
  87. Heliconia litana - Imbabura
  88. Heliconia longiflora - Colombia, Ecuador, Central America
  89. Heliconia longissima - Colombia
  90. Heliconia lophocarpa - Costa Rica, Panama
  91. Heliconia lourteigiae - South America
  92. Heliconia lozanoi - Colombia
  93. Heliconia luciae - B Amazonas
  94. Heliconia lutea - Panama
  95. Heliconia luteoviridis - Colombia
  96. Heliconia lutheri - Ecuador
  97. Heliconia maculata - Panama
  98. Heliconia magnifica - Panama
  99. Heliconia × mantenensis - Minas Gerais
  100. Heliconia marginata - N South America, S Central America
  101. Heliconia mariae - NW South America, Central America
  102. Heliconia markiana - Ecuador
  103. Heliconia marthiasiae - S Mexico, Central America
  104. Heliconia meridensis - Colombia, Venezuela
  105. Heliconia metallica - N South America, Central America
  106. Heliconia monteverdensis - Costa Rica
  107. Heliconia mooreana - Guerrero
  108. Heliconia mucilagina - Colombia
  109. Heliconia mucronata - Venezuela, NW Brazil
  110. Heliconia mutisiana - Colombia
  111. Heliconia nariniensis - Colombia, Ecuador
  112. Heliconia necrobracteata - Panama
  113. Heliconia × nickeriensis - Suriname, French Guiana
  114. Heliconia nigripraefixa - Colombia, Ecuador, Panama
  115. Heliconia nitida - Colombia
  116. Heliconia nubigena - Costa Rica, Panama
  117. Heliconia nutans - Costa Rica, Panama
  118. Heliconia obscura - Ecuador, Peru
  119. Heliconia obscuroides - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
  120. Heliconia oleosa - Colombia
  121. Heliconia ortotricha - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru
  122. Heliconia osaensis - Colombia, Central America
  123. Heliconia paka - Fiji
  124. Heliconia paludigena - Ecuador
  125. Heliconia papuana - New Guinea
  126. Heliconia pardoi - Ecuador
  127. Heliconia pastazae - Ecuador
  128. Heliconia peckenpaughii - Napo
  129. Heliconia pendula - Guiana, Fr Guiana, NE Brazil
  130. Heliconia penduloides - Peru
  131. Heliconia peteriana - Ecuador
  132. Heliconia × plagiotropa - Ecuador
  133. Heliconia platystachys - NW South America, S Central America
  134. Heliconia pogonantha - NW South America, S Central America
  135. Heliconia pruinosa - Peru
  136. Heliconia pseudoaemygdiana - Rio de Janeiro
  137. Heliconia psittacorum - N South America, Panama, Trinidad
  138. Heliconia ramonensis - Costa Rica, Panama
  139. Heliconia × rauliniana - Venezuela
  140. Heliconia regalis - Colombia, Ecuador
  141. Heliconia reptans - Colombia
  142. Heliconia reticulata - NW South America, S Central America
  143. Heliconia revoluta - Colombia, Venezuela, NW Brazil
  144. Heliconia rhodantha - Colombia
  145. Heliconia richardiana - NE South America
  146. Heliconia rigida - Colombia
  147. Heliconia riopalenquensis - Ecuador
  148. Heliconia rivularis - São Paulo
  149. Heliconia robertoi - Colombia
  150. Heliconia robusta - Peru, Bolivia
  151. Heliconia rodriguensis - Venezuela
  152. Heliconia rodriguezii - Costa Rica
  153. Heliconia rostrata - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia
  154. Heliconia samperiana - Colombia
  155. Heliconia sanctae-martae - Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta
  156. Heliconia sanctae-theresae - Antioquia
  157. Heliconia santaremensis - Pará
  158. Heliconia sarapiquensis - Costa Rica, Panama
  159. Heliconia scarlatina - Colombia, Panama, Peru
  160. Heliconia schiedeana - Mexico
  161. Heliconia schumanniana - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, N Brazil
  162. Heliconia sclerotricha - Ecuador
  163. Heliconia secunda - Costa Rica, Nicaragua
  164. Heliconia sessilis - Panama
  165. Heliconia signa-hispanica - Colombia
  166. Heliconia solomonensis - Solomon Islands, Bismarck Archipelago
  167. Heliconia spathocircinata - South America, Panama, Trinidad
  168. Heliconia spiralis - Colombia
  169. Heliconia spissa - S Mexico, Central America
  170. Heliconia standleyi - Ecuador, Peru
  171. Heliconia stella-maris - Colombia
  172. Heliconia stilesii - Costa Rica, Panama
  173. Heliconia stricta - N South America
  174. Heliconia subulata - South America
  175. Heliconia tacarcunae - Panama
  176. Heliconia talamancana - Costa Rica, Panama
  177. Heliconia tandayapensis - Ecuador
  178. Heliconia tenebrosa - Colombia, NE Peru, NW Brazil
  179. Heliconia terciopela - Colombia
  180. Heliconia thomasiana - Panama
  181. Heliconia timothei - NE Peru, NW Brazil
  182. Heliconia titanum - Colombia
  183. Heliconia tortuosa - S Mexico, Central America
  184. Heliconia trichocarpa - Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia
  185. Heliconia tridentata - Colombia
  186. Heliconia triflora - B Amazonas
  187. Heliconia umbrophila - Costa Rica
  188. Heliconia uxpanapensis - Veracruz
  189. Heliconia vaginalis - Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador
  190. Heliconia vellerigera - Ecuador, Peru
  191. Heliconia velutina - Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, NW Brazil
  192. Heliconia venusta - Colombia, Ecuador
  193. Heliconia villosa - Venezuela
  194. Heliconia virginalis - Ecuador
  195. Heliconia wagneriana - Central America, N South America, Trinidad
  196. Heliconia willisiana - Pichincha
  197. Heliconia wilsonii - Costa Rica, Panama
  198. Heliconia xanthovillosa - Panama
  199. Heliconia zebrina - Peru

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Ecology[edit]

Heliconias are an important food source for forest hummingbirds, especially the hermits (Phathornithinae), some of which – such as the rufous-breasted hermit (Glaucis hirsuta) – also use the plant for nesting. The Honduran white bat (Ectophylla alba) also lives in tents it makes from heliconia leaves.

Heliconia and bats[edit]

Pollination[edit]

Although Heliconia are almost exclusively pollinated by hummingbirds, some bat pollination has been found to occur. Heliconia solomonensis is pollinated by the macroglosine bat (Melonycteris woodfordi) in the Solomon Islands. Heliconia solomonensis has green inflorescences and flowers that open at night, which is typical of bat pollinated plants. The macroglosine bat is the only known nocturnal pollinator of Heliconia solomonensis.[13]

Habitat[edit]

Many bats use Heliconia leaves for shelter. The Honduran white bat, Ectohylla alba, utilizes five species of Heliconia to make diurnal tent shaped roosts. The bat cuts the side veins of the leaf extending from the midrib causing the leaf to fold like a tent. This structure provides the bat with shelter from rain, sun, and predators. In addition, the stems of the Heliconia leaves are not strong enough to carry the weight of typical bat predators, so shaking of the leaf alerts roosting bats to presence of predators.[14] The bats Artibeus anderseni and A. phaeotis form tents from the leaves of Heliconia in the same manner as the Honduran white bat.[15] The Neotropical disk-winged bat, Thyroptera tricolor, has suction disks on the wrists which allow it to cling to the smooth surfaces of the Heliconia leaves. This bat roosts head up in the rolled young leaves of Heliconia plants.[16]

Insects and Heliconia[edit]

Heliconias provide shelter for a diverse range of insects within their young rolled leaves and water-filled floral bracts. Insects that inhabit the rolled leaves often feed upon the inner surfaces of the leaf, such as beetles of the family Chrysomelidae. In bracts containing small amounts of water, fly larvae and beetles are the dominant inhabitants. In bracts with greater quantities of water the typical inhabitants are mosquito larva. Insects living in the bracts often feed on the bract tissue, nectar of the flower, flower parts, other insects, microorganisms, or detritus in the water contained in the bract (Siefert 1982). Almost all species of Hispini beetles that use rolled leaves are obligate herbivores of plants of the order of Zingiberales, which includes Heliconia. These beetles live in and feed from the rolled leaf, the stems, the inflorescences, or the unfurled mature leaves of the Heliconia plant. In addition, these beetles deposit their eggs on the leaf surface, petioles of immature leaves, or in the bracts of the Heliconia.[17] Furthermore, some wasp species such as Polistes erythrocephalus build their nest on the protected underside of large leaves.[18]

Hummingbirds and Heliconia[edit]

Hummingbirds are the main pollinators of flowers in the genus Heliconia (order Zingiberales: family Heliconiaceae) in many locations. The concurrent diversification of hummingbird pollinated taxa in the order Zingiberales and the hummingbird family (Trochilidae: Phaethorninae) 18 mya supports that these radiations have significantly influenced one another through evolutionary time.[19] Kress and Specht 2005). At La Selva research station in Costa Rica it was found that specific species of Heliconia have specific hummingbird pollinators.[20] These hummingbirds can be organized into two different groups: hermits and non-hermits. Hermits are a subfamily of Phaethornithinae, consisting of the genera Anopetia, Eutoxeres, Glaucis, Phaethornis, Ramphodon, and Threnetes.[21] Non-hermits are a paraphyletic group within the Trochilidae, comprising several clades (McGuire 2008). Hermits are generally traplining foragers, where individuals visit a repeated circuit of high-reward flowers instead of holding fixed territories [20][22] Non-hermits are territorial over their Heliconia clumps, causing greater self-pollination.[20] Hermits tend to have long curved bills while non-hermits tend to possess short straight bills, a morphological difference that likely spurred the divergence of these groups in the Miocene era.[23][24] Characteristics of Heliconia flowers that select for either hermit or non-hermit pollinator specificity are degree of self-compatibility, flowering phenology, nectar production, color, and shape of flower.[25][26][23] The hummingbird itself will choose the plants its feeds from based on its beak shape, its perch on the plant, and its territory choice.[27]

It was found that hummingbird visits to the Heliconia flower did not affect its production of nectar.[28] This may account for the flowers not having a consistent amount of nectar produced from flower to flower.

Different Heliconia species have different flowering seasons. This suggests that the species compete for pollinators. It was found that many species of Heliconia, even the newly colonized species, all had many pollinators visit.[29]

Cultivation[edit]

Several cultivars and hybrids have been selected for garden planting, including:

  • H. psittacorum × H. spathocircinata, both species of South America, mainly Brazil
  • H. × rauliniana = H. marginata (Venezuela) × H. bihai (Brazil)
  • H. chartacea cv. 'Sexy Pink'

Most commonly grown landscape Heliconia species include Heliconia augusta, H. bihai, H. brasiliensis, H. caribaea, H. latispatha, H. pendula, H. psittacorum, H. rostrata, H. schiediana, and H. wagneriana.

Uses[edit]

Heliconias are grown for the florist's trade and as landscape plants. These plants do not grow well in cold, dry conditions. They are very drought intolerant, but can endure some soil flooding. Heliconias need an abundance of water, sunlight, and soils that are rich in humus in order to grow well. These flowers are grown in tropical regions all over the world as ornamental plants.[30] The flower of H. psittacorum (Parrot Heliconia) is especially distinctive, its greenish-yellow flowers with black spots and red bracts reminding of the bright plumage of parrots.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-06-26. 
  2. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
  3. ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1. 
  4. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, genus Heliconia
  5. ^ Berry, Fred; Kress, John (1991). Heliconia Identification Guide. Smithsonian Institution Press. 
  6. ^ Gilman, Edward; Meerow, Alan (1 May 2007). "Heliconia spp. Heliconia". University of Florida IFAS Extension. 
  7. ^ He, J.; Chee, C.; Goh, C. "‘Photoinhibition’ of Heliconia under natural tropical conditions: the importance of leaf orientation for light interception and leaf temperature". Plant, Cell, and Environment. 19: 1238–1248. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.1996.tb00002.x. 
  8. ^ Bruna, E. M.; Kress, W. J.; Marques, F.; da Silva, O. F. (2004). "Heliconia acuminata reproductive success is independent of local floral density". Acta Amazonica. 34 (3): 467–471. doi:10.1590/s0044-59672004000300012. 
  9. ^ Uriarte, M. Anciães; da Silva, M. T.B.; Rubim, P.; Johnson, E.; Bruna, E. M. (2011). "Disentangling the drivers of reduced long-distance seed dispersal by birds in an experimentally fragmented landscape". Ecology. 92 (4): 924–937. doi:10.1890/10-0709.1. 
  10. ^ Hoii, Karen; Lulow, Megan (2006). "Effects of species, habitat, and distance from edge on post-dispersal seed predation in a Tropical Rainforest". Biotropica. 29: 459–468. 
  11. ^ Walter Judd; et al. (2007). Plant Systematics: A phylogenetic approach (3rd ed.). Sunderland: Sinauer Associates, Inc. 
  12. ^ Sass et al 2016.
  13. ^ Kress, W. J. (1985). "Bat Pollination of an Old World Heliconia". Biotropica. 17 (4): 302–308. doi:10.2307/2388592. 
  14. ^ Timm, R.W.; Mortimer, J. (1976). "Selection of Roost sited by Honduran White Bats, Ectophylla Alba (Chiroptera: Phyllostomatidae)". Ecology. 57 (2): 385–389. doi:10.2307/1934829. 
  15. ^ Timm, R.W.; Patterson, B.D. (1987). "Tent Construction by bats of the genera Artibeus and Uroderma". Fieldiana: Zoology. 29: 188–212. 
  16. ^ Findley, J.S.; Wilson, D.E. (1974). "Observations on the Neotropical disk-winged bat, Thyroptera tricolor spix". Journal of Mammalogy. 55 (3): 563–571. PMID 4853410. doi:10.2307/1379546. 
  17. ^ Strong Jr., Donald R. (1977). "Insect Species Richness: Hispine Beetles of the Heliconia Latispatha". Ecology. 58. 
  18. ^ "Nesting habits and nest symbionts of Polistes erythrocephalus Latreille (Hymenoptera Vespidae) in Costa Rica" (PDF). Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  19. ^ Bleiweiss, R. (1998). "Tempo and mode of hummingbird evolution". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 65 (1): 63–76. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1998.tb00351.x. 
  20. ^ a b c Stiles, Gary (1975). "Ecology, flowering phenology, and hummingbird pollination of some Costa Rican "Heliconia" species". Ecology. 56: 285–301. doi:10.2307/1934961. 
  21. ^ McGuire, J. A.; Witt, C. C.; Remsen Jr., J. V.; Dudley, R.; Altshuler, D.L. (2008). "A higher-level taxonomy for hummingbirds". Journal of Ornithology. 150: 155–165. doi:10.1007/s10336-008-0330-x. 
  22. ^ Dobkin, D. S. (1984). "Flowering patterns of long-lived "Heliconia" inflorescences: implications for visiting and resident nectarivores". Oecologia. 64 (2): 245–254. doi:10.1007/bf00376878. 
  23. ^ a b Graham, C. H.; Parra, J. L.; Rahbek, C.; McGuire, J. A. (2009). "Phylogenetic structure in tropical hummingbird communities". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 106: 19673–19678. doi:10.1073/pnas.0901649106. 
  24. ^ Temeles, E. J.; Miller, J. S.; Rifkin, J. L. (2010). "Evolution of sexual dimorphism in bill size and shape of hermit hummingbirds (Phaethornithinae): a role for ecological causation". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 365: 1053–1063. PMC 2830232Freely accessible. PMID 20194168. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0284. 
  25. ^ Kress, W. J.; Specht, C. D. (2005). "Between Cancer and Capricorn: phylogeny, evolution and ecology of the primarily tropical Zingiberales". Biologiske Skrifter. 55: 459–478. 
  26. ^ Meléndez-Ackerman, E. J.; Speranza, P.; Kress, W. J.; Rohena, L.; Toledo, E.; Cortés, C.; Treece, D.; Gitzendanner, M.; Soltis, P.; Soltis, D. (2005). "Microevolutionary processes inferred from AFLP and morphological variation in Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae)". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 166 (5): 781–794. 
  27. ^ Linhart, Yan (1973). "Ecological and behavioral determinants of pollen dispersal in hummingbird- pollinated Heliconia". The American Naturalist. 107: 511–523. doi:10.1086/282854. 
  28. ^ Feinsinger, Peter (1983). "Variable nectar secretion in a Heliconia species pollinated by hermit hummingbirds". Biotropica. 15: 48–52. doi:10.2307/2387998. 
  29. ^ Feinsinger, Peter (1978). "Ecological interactions between plants and hummingbirds in a successional tropical community". Ecological Monographs. 48: 269–287. doi:10.2307/2937231. 
  30. ^ Ong, Chong Ren (March 2007). "Heliconia Basics". Green Culture Singapore. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]