Helium-3 refrigerator

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A helium-3 refrigerator is a simple device used in experimental physics for obtaining temperatures down to about 0.2 kelvins. By evaporative cooling of helium-4 (the more common isotope of helium), a 1-K pot liquefies a small amount of helium-3 in a small vessel called a helium-3 pot. Evaporative cooling of the liquid helium-3, usually driven by adsorption since due to its high price the helium-3 is usually contained in a closed system to avoid losses, cools the helium-3 pot to a fraction of a kelvin.


Helium-3 refrigerators are commonly used in particle accelerators to chill magnets.

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