Helmet streamer

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An abundance of helmet streamers at solar maximum
Helmet streamers at solar minimum

Helmet streamers are bright loop-like structures which develop over active regions on the Sun. They are closed magnetic loops which connect regions of opposite magnetic polarity. Electrons are captured in these loops, and cause them to glow very brightly. The solar wind elongates these loops to pointy tips. They far extend above most prominences into the corona, and can be readily observed during a solar eclipse. Helmet streamers are usually confined to the "streamer belt" in the mid latitudes, and their distribution follows the movement of active regions during the solar cycle. Small blobs of plasma, or "plasmoids" are sometimes released from the tips of helmet streamers, and this is one source of the slow component of the solar wind. In contrast, formations with open magnetic field lines are called coronal holes, and these are darker and are a source of the fast solar wind. Helmet streamers can also create coronal mass ejections if a large volume of plasma becomes disconnected near the tip of the streamer.

See also[edit]


  • Kallenrode, May-Britt (2004). Space Physics: An Introduction to Plasmas and Particles in the Heliosphere and Magnetospheres. Berlin: Springer. p. 145. ISBN 3-540-20617-5.