Help:IPA/Danish

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Danish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-da}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Danish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of the language.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
ɕ Sjælland [ˈɕɛˌlænˀ][1] sheep
ð øde [ˈøːðə] bathe
ð̩ skinnede [ˈskenð̩ðə] the book (pronounced quickly)
f fod [ˈfoðˀ] fan
h hat [ˈhæt] hill
j jord [ˈjoɐ̯ˀ] yawn
k god [ˈkoðˀ] scan
kone [ˈkʰoːnə] car
l lov [ˈlɒʊ̯] lake
solen [ˈsoːˀl̩n] bottle
m mod [ˈmoðˀ] man
København [kʰøpm̩ˈhaʊ̯ˀn] rhythm
n node [ˈnoːðə] noon
vinden [ˈvenˀn̩] sudden
ŋ lang [ˈlaŋˀ] ring
ŋ̍ ryggen [ˈʁœkŋ̍] like ring but longer
p bog [ˈpɔʊ̯ˀ] spare
pol [ˈpʰoːˀl] pack
ʁ rød [ˈʁœðˀ] French parler
s sod [ˈsoðˀ] soon
t dåb [ˈtɔːˀp] start
tak [ˈtˢak] too
tjener [ˈtɕeːnɐ][1] chin
v våd [ˈvɔðˀ] very
Semivowels
ɐ̯ er [ˈæɐ̯] near
mig [ˈmai̯] yawn
hav [ˈhau̯] "ocean" want
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a tak [ˈtˢak] art
barn [ˈpaːˀn] father
ɒ og [ˈɒu̯], ånd [ˈɒnˀ] off
ɒː i går [i ˈkɒːˀ] dog
æ frisk [ˈfʁæsk], kat [ˈkʰæt] hat
æː gade [ˈkæːðə] bad
e bed [ˈpeð] ("garden plot") exact
ɛ ven [ˈvɛn] bed
hel [ˈheːˀl] somewhat like phase
ɛː hæl [ˈhɛːˀl]
i tisse [ˈtˢisə] Scottish and South African beat
si [ˈsiːˀ] Scottish and South African be
o flod [ˈfloðˀ] somewhat like oak
ɔ ost [ˈɔst]
kone [ˈkʰoːnə] somewhat like go
ɔː måle [ˈmɔːlə]
ø nød [ˈnøðˀ] somewhat like nurse
œ bønne [ˈpœnə]
ɶ tør [ˈtˢɶɐ̯ˀ] ("dry")
øː løber [ˈløːpɐ] "runner" somewhat like fur
œː afgrøde [ˈæu̯kʁœːðə]
ɶː røre [ˈʁɶːɐ]
u ud [ˈuðˀ] boot
hule [ˈhuːlə] food
y tyk [ˈtˢyk] somewhat like cute
synlig [ˈsyːnli] somewhat like feud
Stress
ˈ  ˌ husmor [ˈhusˌmoɐ̯]
Stød
ˀ ti [ˈtˢiːˀ] button
Unstressed-only
ɐ løber [ˈløːpɐ] "runner" but
ə hoppe [ˈhɒpə] balance
ɪ kage [ˈkʰæːɪ][2] hit
ʊ mave [ˈmæːʊ][2] foot

Comparison to other phonetic transcription schemes[edit]

Materials published elsewhere use somewhat different conventions from those used at Wikipedia. For example, it is a longstanding tradition to transcribe the open back rounded vowel [ɒ] in ånd [ˈɒnˀ] 'spirit' with ⟨ʌ⟩, but that is not standard IPA usage.

This section compares the IPA system used at Wikipedia with the system used in some other works. The actual phonetic value of each symbol is listed in the last collumn for the sake of clarity.

Symbols preceded by a dagger ⟨†⟩ are either non-IPA or IPA symbols used in a non-standard manner.

IPA Allan, Holmes & Lundskær-Nielsen (2000) Basbøll (2005) Den Danske Ordbog Grønnum (2001) Grønnum (2005) Haberland (1994) IPA (2010) Krech et al. (2009) Narrow transcription[3]
a ɑ ɑ ɑ ɑ ɑ ɑ a a [ä]
ɑ: ɑː ɑː ɑː ɑː ɑː [äː]
ɐ ɔ ɐ ʌ[a] ʌ[a] ɐ ɐ ər, r ɔ [ɒ̽]
ɐ̯ ɐ̯ ɐ̯ ʌ̯ ɐ̯ ɐ̯ r ɔ̯ [ɒ̯̽]
ɒ ɔ ʌ / ɒ[b] ʌ / ɒ[b] ʌ / ɒ[b] ʌ / ɒ[b] ʌ / ɒ[b] ʌ / †ʌr [ɒ̽] / [ɔ]
ɒː ɔ: ɒː ɒː ɒː ɒː ɒː ɔːr ɒː [ɔː]
æ a a / æ[c] a / æ[c] a / æ[c] a / æ[c] a / ɛ[c] a æ [æ] / [ɛ]
æː a: æː æː æː æː ɛː æː [ɛː]
ɕ ɕ ɕ ɕ ɕ sj ʂ [ɕ]
ð ð ð ð ð ð ð ð ð [ðˠ˕˗]
ð̩ ð̩ ð̩ ð̩ ð̩ ð̩ ð̩ [ð̩ˠ˕˗]
e e e e e e e e []
e: e̝ː [e̝ː]
ɛ ɛ ɛ ϵ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ [e]
ɛː ɛ: ɛː ϵː ɛː ɛː e̞ː ɛː ɛː []
ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə [ə]
f f f f f f f f [f]
h h h h h h h h h [h]
i i i i i i i i i [i]
i ɪ̯[d] j[d] j[d] j[d] i [i̯ ~ e̯][d]
i: []
ɪ ɪ ɪ [ɪ]
j j j j j j j j [j]
k ɡ ɡ̊ ɡ ɡ̊ ɡ̊ ɡ ɡ ɡ̊ [k]
k k k k ɡ̊ʰ [kʰ]
l l l l l l l l l [l]
[l̩]
m m m m m m m m m [m]
[m̩]
n n n n n n n n n [n]
[n̩]
ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ [ŋ]
ŋ̍ ŋ̩ ŋ̩ ŋ̩ [ŋ̍]
o o o o o o o o []
o: [o̝ː]
ɔ å ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ [ɔ̽]
ɔː å: ɔː ɔː ɔː ɔː ɔː ɔː [ɔ̽ː]
ø ø ø ø ø ø ø̝ ø ø [ø]
øː ø: øː øː øː øː ø̝ː øː øː [øː]
œ œ œ œ œ œ ø̞ œ œ [œ̝]
œː œ: œː œː œː œː ø̞ː œː œː [œ̝ː]
ɶ œ ɶ ɶ ɶ / œ̞[e] ɶ / œ̞[e] œ ɶ [œ ~ ɶ̝]
ɶː œ: ɶː ɶː ɶː / œ̞ː[e] ɶː / œ̞ː[e] œː ɶː [œː ~ ɶ̝ː]
p b b b b [p]
p p p p b̥ʰ [pʰ]
ʁ r ʁ ʁ ʁ ʁ ʁ r ʁ [ʁ̞]
s s s s s s s s [s]
t d d d d [t]
t t t t d̥ˢ [tˢʰ]
tj []
v v v v v v v v v [ʋ]
u u u u u u u u u [u]
u ʊ̯[d] w[d] w[d] w[d] u [u̯ ~ o̯][d]
u: []
ʊ ʊ ʊ [ʊ]
y y y y y y y y y [y]
y: []
ˀ ˀ ˀ ˀ ˀ ˀ [◌̰]
ˈtˢiːˀ ˈti’ ˈtˢiːˀ ˈtiˀ ˈtˢiːˀ ˈtˢiːˀ ˈti.’ ˈti’ ˈd̥ˢiˀ [ˈtˢʰḭˑ]
a. ^ ^ Not distinguished from the short allophone of /ɔ/ in the works, so that both ånd 'spirit' and the final syllable of løber 'runner' are transcribed with ⟨ʌ⟩. In this guide we write the former with ⟨ɒ⟩ and the latter with ⟨ɐ⟩, even though there is often no phonetic difference between the two: [ˈɒnˀ, ˈløːpɐ].
b. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ The symbol ⟨ʌ⟩ is used for the main allophone of /ɔ/ (as in ånd 'spirit'), whereas ⟨ɒ⟩ is used wherever there is ⟨r⟩ in spelling, as in korset 'corset' (though ⟨ʌ⟩ is sometimes also seen in this context, as in profesor 'profesor'), in the diphthong [ɒu̯] and as a result of schwa-assimilation. Here, we do not differentiate between them and transcribe both with ⟨ɒ⟩: [ˈɒnˀ, kʰɒˈsɛt]. The symbols ⟨ʌ⟩ and ⟨ɒ⟩ correspond to [ɒ̽] and [ɔ] in narrow transcription; Danish [ɔ] is a closer vowel: [ɔ̽].
c. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ The sign ⟨a⟩ is used for the main (front) allophone of /a/, whereas ⟨æ⟩ (⟨ɛ⟩ in Haberland (1994)) is used in some other contexts, e.g. in the diphthong [æɐ̯] (which Haberland writes with ⟨ɛɐ̯⟩). Here, we do not differentiate between the two and transcribe both with ⟨æ⟩. The symbols ⟨a⟩ (as used in works other than this guide) and ⟨æ⟩ correspond to [æ] and [ɛ] in narrow transcription; Danish [ɛ] and [e] are closer vowels: [e], [].
d. ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ [i̯, u̯] in [ei̯, ɛi̯, ui̯, eu̯, iu̯, ou̯] (e.g. sneg [ˈsnei̯ˀ] 'sneaked'), [e̯, o̯] in other diphthongs, especially those that begin open-mid or lower (e.g. hav [ˈhao̯] 'ocean'). In this guide, we do not distinguish between the two and write both with ⟨i̯, u̯⟩ for the sake of simplicity: [ˈsnei̯ˀ], [ˈhau̯]. Some works (e.g. Grønnum (2005)) do not distinguish [i̯] from [j] and transcribe [u̯] with ⟨w⟩. Basbøll writes the endpoints of the diphthongs with ⟨ɪ̯ ʊ̯⟩, which suggests either too open a starting point of [ei̯] or that it is a centering diphthong instead of a front closing one (from near-close to close), or that [iu̯] is a backing-opening diphthong instead of just backing.
e. ^ ^ ^ ^ The symbols ⟨ɶ⟩ and ⟨ɶː⟩ are used in words such as grøn 'green' (transcribed [ˈɡ̊ʁɶnˀ] by Nina Grønnum), whereas ⟨œ̞⟩ and ⟨œ̞ː⟩ are used in words such as gøre 'to do' (transcribed [ˈɡ̊œ̞ːɐ] by Nina Grønnum). Hans Basbøll notes that not all speakers have this distinction. In this guide, only ⟨ɶ⟩ and ⟨ɶː⟩ are used: [ˈkʁɶnˀ, ˈkɶːɐ]. The symbols ⟨ɶ(ː)⟩ and ⟨œ̞(ː)⟩ correspond to [ɶ̝(ː)] and [œ(ː)] in narrow transcription; Danish [œ(ː)] is a closer vowel: [œ̝(ː)].

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b [tɕ] is phonemically /tˢj/, and [ɕ] is phonemically /sj/.
  2. ^ a b [ɪ] and [ʊ] are assimilatory variants of [i̯ə] and [u̯ə], respectively.
  3. ^ Basbøll (2005).

Bibliography[edit]

  • Allan, Robin; Holmes, Philip; Lundskær-Nielsen, Tom (2000), Danish: An Essential Grammar, Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-20678-2
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Grønnum, Nina (2001) [1998], Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (2nd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 9788750036371
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005) [1998], Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
  • Haberland, Hartmut (1994), "Danish", in König, Ekkehard; van der Auwera, Johan (eds.), The Germanic Languages, Routledge, pp. 313–348, ISBN 1317799585
  • IPA (2010) [1949], "The Principles of the International Phonetic Association", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 40 (03): 299–358, doi:10.1017/S0025100311000089
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), "7.3.3 Dänisch", Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6