This guide follows the way reputable sources transcribe Danish. In some cases, it radically differs from the prototypical values of IPA symbols. For instance, the plosives [b, d, ɡ] differ from [p, t, k] not by voicing (as in French or Russian) but purely by aspiration or affrication and all of them are voiceless (strict IPA: [p, t, k], [pʰ, tˢ, kʰ]), much like the plosives of Icelandic and Standard Chinese. Therefore, words like bog and pol are actually pronounced [ˈpɔwˀ] and [ˈpʰoːˀl] even though they are here transcribed as [ˈbɔwˀ] and [ˈpoːˀl].
^ ab[tɕ] is phonemically /tj/, and [ɕ] is phonemically /sj/.
^ abcDiphthongs with an underlying long vowel always have stød, but the ones with an underlying short vowel do not. [ej, ɛj, æj, øj, æw, ow, ɔw] all have an underlying long vowel and so always have stød. Conversely, [ɑj, ʌj, uj, ɑw, ɒw] have an underlying short vowel and so never have stød. The other diphthongs (including all diphthongs ending with [ɐ̯]) appear both with and without stød (Grønnum (2005:294)).
^ abcBoth [o] and [ɔ] are allophones of the short /o/. Generally, the former appears in open syllables and the latter in closed ones, but there are exceptions such as flod[ˈfloðˀ] which has [o] instead of the expected [ɔ]. The short /ɔ/ is realized as [ʌ] (Basbøll (2005:50)).
^ ab[ɪ] and [ʊ] are assimilatory variants of [jə] and [wə], respectively.