Help:IPA/Emilian-Romagnol

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet represents Emilian-Romagnol pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. See Emilian dialect and Romagnol dialect to learn more.

Sounds are listed for the most common occurrences thtoughout the dialectal continuum. For practical reasons, all examples listed are in Bolognese.

Consonants[1]
IPA Examples English approximation
b barbutlêr, lâber bounce
d dimónndi, quadēren dance
dz[2] ónngia, gêra, dṡdétta, żôbia, żåuven, żâl, żnêr dress
ð żôbia, żåuven, żâl, żnêr, żtêr then
f fidózzia, sfrîṡ fancy
ɡ ghêṡg, żuglén gas
k cardänza, alchêr, qualónc scald
l limalén less
ʎ viżégglia, al gnôc trillion
m mumiêr, nómm, cunfêt[3] mess
n scrâna, mândga, cróṅna[3] nest
ŋ pinån, ganba, cróna, dänt, diavlén[3][4] thing
ɲ Bulåggna, Germâgna vineyard
p pdôć, grópp Spencer
 ʁ ʀ r  rànnder, curtêl trilled r or Northumbrian burr
s[2] Sasōl, scusêr, pass, zénc, Piaṡänza, zassta, arzàvver between press and pressure
t tetôja, mât stance
ts[2] cucêr, cîṡa, dscårrer, znêr, zassta, arzàvver stress
θ zénc, Piaṡänza, znêr, zassta, arzàvver thin
v tvâja, ōv, Mântva, quarcén, ridéccuel[5] verse
z[2] aà, scuêr, vedai, żåuven, żâl, żnêr, żtêr between seize and seizure
 
Semivowels[1]
IPA Examples English approximation
j supiêr, fiûr, marâja yet
w quarcén, ridéccuel[5] wet
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ raṡån [rɐˈzʌŋː] primary stress
ˌ levapiât [ˌlɛvɐˈpjaːt] secondary stress
. riasónt [ri.ɐˈsoŋːt] syllable break
ː insónni [iŋˈsonːi] geminated consonant[1]
Vowels[6]
IPA Examples English approximation
Short vowels
 a ɐ[7] maravajja, laggn, spass, dialàtt, pêder, påzz, dåǵǵ, curâǵ bad (Scotland)
æ[8][9] sänper bad
ʌ[8][9] pizån, curåṅna, månd, påzz, dåǵǵ bud
e pêder, brevàtt, sänper, galéṅna, pêl, lêt, rédder, artéccol bait
ɛ[8] maravajja, laggn, spass, dialàtt, pêl, lêt bet
ə[8][10] spass, dialàtt banana
i mistēri bit
ɔ[8] riṡôt, pizån, curåṅna, månd cloth
o månd, påzz, dåǵǵ, upurtón, péccol, zóggn, brótt ball (RP), but shorter
u péccol, zóggn, brótt, zucarén, butîr, uṡêl, pruvêr book
y[10] zóggn, brótt, zucarén, butîr book (Scotland)
Long vowels and diphthongs[8]
  ɐː[7] curâǵ balm
 a ɐ[7][9] raigla, franzaiṡ, vair, pail bite
æː[10] burdêl, lumêga bad
ʌ[9] anvåud, såul, såura bone (RP)
[11] raigla, franzaiṡ, vair, pail, manîra, sîra, lîber bait
ɛː[11] pêl, lêt, burdêl, lumêga bear (RP)
ɛ sänper, galéṅna, vair, pail bait
ə[10] sänper, galéṅna bite (Scotland)
rédder, artéccol, manîra, sîra, lîber beet
[11] pizån, curåṅna, upurtón, Żōrż, ōr, nōv, sōra, fiōl, anvåud, såul, såura ball (RP)
ɔː[11] riṡôt, Żōrż, ōr, nōv, sōra ball (GA)
ɔ pizån, curåṅna, anvåud, såul, såura bowl
øː[10] nōv, sōra, fiōl bird (RP)
ø[10] upurtón bite (Scotland)
anvåud, såul, såura, angûria, mnûd booty
[10] angûria, mnûd beauty

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Consonant and semivowel lengthening (occurring in certain dialects after stressed short vowels) is represented in IPA by either doubling the consonant or through the ⟨ː⟩ marker (e.g. cràdder [ˈkradder]/[ˈkradːer]).
  2. ^ a b c d /dz/, /z/, /ts/, /s/ are most commonly [dð̠], [ð̠]~[ʐ], [tθ̠], [θ̠]~[ʂ], often with labialization.
  3. ^ a b c As in most Northern Italian languages, Emilian-Romagnol nasals do not generally assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant, differently from what happens in standard Italian. [ŋ] is used in all nasal plus consonant clusters, with the only exceptions being [ɱ] before /f/~/v/ and (only in a few cases) [] before dentals /t/~/d/ (these two are here transcribed ⟨m⟩ and ⟨n⟩ for simplicity).
  4. ^ In Piacentino, /ŋ/ is silent in syllable coda after [əi̯].
  5. ^ a b /v/ is realized as [bv] or [pf] in certain instances in Mirandolese, while post- or pre-consonantal /w/ may result in [v] in Reggiano, Romagnol and some other dialects.
  6. ^ Vowel length is distinctive in stressed position (with long vowels occurring only in such contexts), however it may not always be the same throughout the dialects (vowels that are long in certain places may be short somewhere else, and vice versa). Sometimes vowels may also result in diphthongs, or (especially /e/) be dropped if unstressed. Note that especially Eastern dialects tend to have slightly more central vowels than they are transcribed.
  7. ^ a b c [a] and [ɐ] are in varying distribution according to the dialect; however, the first is often stressed while the latter is predominantly unstressed.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Always stressed.
  9. ^ a b c d Only occurring in Bolognese.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Only occurring in Piacentino.
  11. ^ a b c d In Romagnol dialects, /eː/ and /oː/ are generally [eə̯] and [oə̯] (if followed by a nasal or a liquid [eɪ̯] and [oʊ̯]), while /ɛː/ and /ɔː/ tend more to [ɛɐ̯] and [ɔɐ̯].

External links[edit]

  • Foresti, Fabio. "emiliano-romagnoli, dialetti" [Emilian-Romagnol dialects]. Enciclopedia Treccani (in Italian).