Help:IPA/Estonian

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Estonian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-et}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Estonian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Estonian.

IPA Examples English approximation
Consonants
b[1] buss big
ç vihm human
d ladu adept
f[1] film film
ɡ[1] gorilla go
h hobune horse
ɦ raha ahead
j jõul yolk
k kabi scold
l lina lack
[2] lk leep
m naasma may
n lina nanny
ŋ[3] vang, kink eating
[2] vann onion
p kabi spill
r vere rolled r
s sõbranna sole
ʃ[1] šampus shy
[2] vastik super (some dialects)
t eesti stand
[2] vatt RP stew
ʋ vere Between v and w
x hv Scottish English loch
ʔ [example needed] the pause in uh-oh
Stress
ˈ hobune Normally placed on the first syllable.
hernehirmutis
[ˈher.neˈhir.mutis]
Two stressed syllables in compound words
tule! [ˈtuˈle] Both syllables in two-syllable imperatives.
IPA Examples English approximation
Vowels
ɑ lina Like father, but shorter
ɑː naasma father
æ mägi cat
æː väär mad
e terve let
eesti pay
i viha happy
viin feed
o oks like thought but shorter
soo saw
ø köha Somewhat like nurse
øː vöö Somewhat like bird
ɤ õlu Somewhat like wood
ɤː õõnes Same as above but longer
u surm wood
suu coop
y küla somewhat like cute
rüüpa Somewhat like cube

Diphthongs[edit]

Estonian diphthongs[4]
Vowel ɑ e i o u
ɑ ɑe̯ ɑi̯ ɑo̯ ɑu̯
e eɑ̯ ei̯ eo̯ (eu̯)
i (iɑ̯) (ie̯) (io̯) iu̯
o oɑ̯ oe̯ oi̯ ou̯
u (uɑ̯) (ue̯) ui̯ uo̯
ɤ ɤɑ̯ ɤe̯ ɤi̯ ɤo̯ ɤu̯
æ æe̯ æi̯ æo̯ æu̯
ø øɑ̯ øe̯ øi̯ (øo) (øu)
y yɑ̯ (ye̯) yi̯ (yo̯)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d [b], [f], [ɡ], and [ʃ] occur only in loanwords. In casual speech, they may be replaced with [p], [k], and [s], respectively.
  2. ^ a b c d Palatalized consonants [tʲ nʲ sʲ lʲ] are pronounced like their non-palatalized counterparts, but the tongue is constricted towards the hard palate as if a simultaneous /j/ were being pronounced.
  3. ^ Allophone of /n/ before [k].
  4. ^ From Asu & Teras (2009:370)

References[edit]

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x

External links[edit]