Help:IPA/Estonian

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Estonian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-et}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Estonian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Estonian.

IPA Examples English approximation
Consonants
b [1] buss big
d ladu adept
f [1] film film
ɡ [1] gorilla go
h hobune, raha horse
j jõul yolk
k kabi scold
l lina lack
[2] lk leep
m naasma may
n lina nanny
ŋ [3] vang, kink eating
[2] vann onion
p kapi spill
r vere rolled r
s sõbranna sole
[2] vastik super (some dialects)
ʃ [1] šampus shy
t eesti stand
[2] vatt RP stew
v vere veal
ʔ maq (in South Estonian) the pause in uh-oh
Stress
ˈ hobune Normally placed on the first syllable.
hernehirmutis
[ˈher.neˈhir.mutis]
Two stressed syllables in compound words
tule! [ˈtuˈle] Both syllables in two-syllable imperatives.
Length
vere [ˈvere]
lina [ˈlinɑ]
Short syllable
ː [4] veere [ˈveːre]
linna [ˈlinːɑ]
Long syllable
ːː [4] veere [ˈʋeːːre]
linna [ˈlinːːɑ]
Overlong syllable
IPA Examples English approximation
Vowels[4]
ɑ lina father, but shorter
ɑː naasma father
æ mägi cat
æː väär mad
e terve let
eesti pay
i viha happy
viin feed
o oks story
soo store
ø köha Somewhat like hurt
øː vöö Somewhat like herd
ɤ õlu Somewhat like foot
ɤː õõnes Somewhat like hood
u surm root
suu rude
y küla somewhat like cute
rüüpa Somewhat like cube

Diphthongs[edit]

Estonian diphthongs[5]
Vowel ɑ e i o u
ɑ ɑe̯ ɑi̯ ɑo̯ ɑu̯
e eɑ̯ ei̯ eo̯ (eu̯)
i (iɑ̯) (ie̯) (io̯) iu̯
o oɑ̯ oe̯ oi̯ ou̯
u (uɑ̯) (ue̯) ui̯ uo̯
ɤ ɤɑ̯ ɤe̯ ɤi̯ ɤo̯ ɤu̯
æ æe̯ æi̯ æo̯ æu̯
ø øɑ̯ øe̯ øi̯ (øo) (øu)
y yɑ̯ (ye̯) yi̯ (yo̯)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d [b], [f], [ɡ], and [ʃ] occur only in loanwords. In casual speech, they may be replaced with [p], [k], and [s], respectively.
  2. ^ a b c d Palatalized consonants [tʲ nʲ sʲ lʲ] are pronounced like their non-palatalized counterparts, but the tongue is constricted towards the hard palate as if a simultaneous /j/ were being pronounced.
  3. ^ Allophone of /n/ before [k].
  4. ^ a b c Estonian has a three-way contrast between short, long, and overlong syllables. This contrast is present on both consonants and vowels. In some IPA transcriptions long sounds are marked with a single IPA length marker /ː/ and overlong with two /ːː/, while other transcriptions use half-long /ˑ/ and long /ː/ respectively. Overlong syllables also feature a falling pitch contour, while short and long syllables have a level pitch; however this is not marked.
  5. ^ From Asu & Teras (2009:370)

References[edit]

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009), "Estonian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 367–372, doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x

External links[edit]