Help:IPA/Gujarati

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Gujarati language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-gu}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Gujarati phonology for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Gujarati.

Consonants
IPA Gujarati IAST English approximation
b b bat
bh abhor
β[1] bh somewhat like averse
d d dog
ð[1] dh other
dh adhere
ɖ somewhat like cord
ɖʱ ḍh somewhat like guardhouse
j jack
dʒʱ jh hedgehog
f[1] ph afraid
ɡ g gate
ɡʱ gh egg head
ɣ[1] gh go, but without completely blocking airflow on the g
h head
ɦ h ahead
j y yak
k k scold
kh cold
l l leaf
ɭ l somewhat like Merlin
m m much
n n not
ɳ somewhat like burner
ɲ ñ canyon
ŋ bank
p p span
ph pan
ɾ r butter (American English)
ɽ[2] somewhat like murder
ɽʱ[2] ḍh somewhat like guardhouse
ɽ̃[2] as above, but nasal
s[3] s sue
ʂ[3] somewhat like worship
ʃ[3] ś sheep
t t stop
th top
ʈ somewhat like court
ʈʰ ṭh somewhat like tree
c somewhat like catch
tʃʰ ch cheese
ʋ v vine
Vowels
IPA Gujarati IAST English approximation
ɑ આ, કા ā bra
æ cash
e એ, કે e pay
ɛ ઍ, કૅ â bed
ə અ, ક a about
i ઇ/ ઈ, કિ/ કી i see
o ઓ, કો o story
ɔ ઑ, કૉ ô off
u ઉ/ ઊ, કુ/ કૂ u look
əj ઐ, કૈ ai Somewhat like kite
əʋ ઔ, કૌ au Somewhat like house


Other symbols
IPA Gujarati IAST Notes
◌̃ nasal vowel ([õː], etc.)
◌̃ ◌̤ murmured vowel[4]
ː Length: Vowels are long when nasal (e.g. [moʈʈũː]
ˈ stress
(placed before stressed syllable)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d The voiced aspirated stops /ɡʱ, dʱ, bʱ/ and /pʰ/ have spirant allophones [ɣ, ð, β, f].Cardona & Suthar (2003:665)
  2. ^ a b c The voiced retroflex stops and the nasal /ɖʱ, ɖ, ɳ/ have flapped allophones [ɽʱ, ɽ, ɽ̃]. Intervocalically all three are flapped. The stops are also flapped when before or after other consonants.Mistry (1997:659) The stops are unflapped initially, geminated, and postnasally; and flapped intervocalically, finally, and before or after other consonants.Masica (1991:97).
  3. ^ a b c While there is dialectal variation in this regard, for Wikipedia transcriptions [ʃ] appears contiguous with palatal segments and [ʂ] appears before retroflex consonants: [spəʂʈ] ('clear').Mistry (1997:658)
  4. ^ Gujarati contrasts murmured and non-murmured vowels, except for /e/ and /o/.Cardona & Suthar (2003:662) Mistry (2003:116).

References[edit]

  • Cardona, George; Suthar, Babu (2003), "Gujarati", in Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2
  • Mistry, P.J. (1997), "Gujarati Phonology", in Kaye, A.S, Phonologies of Asia and Africa, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns
  • Mistry, P.J. (2003), "Gujarati", in Frawley, William, International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, 2 (2nd ed.), Oxford: Oxford University Press