Help:IPA/Hejazi Arabic

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The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hejazi Arabic pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-acw}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

The romanization of the examples is based on the romanization system used on Wiktionary.

See Hejazi Arabic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Urban Hejazi Arabic.

Consonants
IPA Arabic letter Example Romanization English approximation
ʔ ء, أ, إ, ؤ, ئ سَأَل saʼal uh-(ʔ)oh
ʕ ع عين ʿēn no equivalent
b ب بِسَّة bissa bike
d د (ذ)[1] (ذيل) دُب dubb (dēl or ēl) done
ض (ظ)[2] (ظِفِر) ضَب abb (ifir or ifir) emphatic /d/
[3] ج جَريدة jarīda job or vision
ð* ذ[1] ذَكَر akar or dakar this
f ف فين fēn fast
ɡ ق قَمَر gamar gas
h هـ هادي hādi hat
ħ ح حَر arr no equivalent
j ي يَد yadd yes
k ك كَلْب kalb cat
l ل لون lōn lip (clear l)
ɫ[4] الله allāh peel (dark l)
m م موية mōya mother
n[5] ن نوم nōm nest
θ* ث[6] ثَوَاب awāb or tawāb think
r[3] ر راس rās trilled r or better (with flapping)
s س (ث)[6] (ثابِت) سَرير sarīr (sābit or ābit) sorry
ص صَبّار abbār emphatic /s/
ʃ ش شَمْس šams ship
t ة ,ت (ث)[6] (ثوب) تَمُر tamur (tōb or ōb) star
ط طير ēr emphatic /t/
w و وَرَقة waraga water
x خ خَس ass loch (Scottish)
ɣ غ غَريب arīb French r but softer
z ز (ذ)[1] (ذَكي) زِر zirr (zaki or aki) zebra
ظ[2] ظَرْف arf emphatic /z/
Notable Allophones
q[7] ق اِسْتِقْلال istiglāl / istiqlāl no equivalent
ðˤ* ظ ظِل[8] ill or ill emphatic /ð/
Non-native Consonants[9]
p* پ پيتزا or بيتزا pītza or bītza put
v* ڤ ڤيروس or فيروس vayrūs or fayrūs view
Vowels
IPA Example Romanization English approximation
Monophthongs
a فَم famm father but shorter
ʊ حُب[10] ubb put (or like law)
u قَبُو gabu to
ɪ سِر[11] sirr sit (or like set)
i مَدْرِي madri happy
[12] نار nār father
نور nūr food
صوت ōt for
مين mīn need
بيت bēt hair
Diphthongs
aw دَوْري dawri how
aj لَيْمون laymūn tie
iw تِوْقَف tiwgaf goat (RP)
ij بِيْقول biygūl hey
Suprasegmentals
IPA examples Explanation
ˈ يوم /ˈjoːm/ ("day") Indicates that the following syllable is stressed.
ː سَكِّينَة /saˈkːiːna/ ("knife") Indicates a long vowel or a geminate consonant.

The sounds [θ], [ð] and [ðˤ] in addition to the foreign [v] and [p] marked by an asterisk* are not used by all speakers.

The four allophones [ʒ], [q], [ɾ] and [ðˤ] usage depends on the speaker, but other allophones are shared by all speakers.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c ذ⟩ represents /d/ as in ذيل /deːl/ & ذكر /dakar/ or /z/ as in ذكي /zaki/, but the classical phoneme /ð/ is still used as well depending on the speaker especially in words of English origin. check Hejazi Arabic phonology
  2. ^ a b ظ⟩ represents /dˤ/ as in ظفر /dˤifir/ & ظل /dˤilː/ or /zˤ/ as in ظرف /zˤarf/, but the classical allophone [ðˤ] is still used as well depending on the speaker. check Hejazi Arabic phonology
  3. ^ a b the affricate /d͡ʒ/ج⟩ and the trill /r/ر⟩ are realised as a [ʒ] (English s in pleasure) and a tap [ɾ] respectively by a number of speakers or in a number of words.
  4. ^ The marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only occurs in the word الله /aɫɫaːh/ ('god') and words derived from it, such as يلا /jaɫɫa/ "come on", they contrast in والله /waɫɫa/ ('i swear') vs. ولَّا /walla/ ('or').
  5. ^ [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ ⟨ن⟩ before velar stops ⟨ق ,ك⟩ /k, ɡ/ as in اَنْكَب [aŋkab] or مِنقَل [mɪŋɡal], and [ɱ] is an allophone before ⟨ڤ ,ف⟩ /f, v/ as in قُرُنْفُل [gʊrʊɱfʊl].
  6. ^ a b c ث⟩ represents /t/ as in ثوب /toːb/ & ثواب /tawaːb/ or /s/ as in ثابت /saːbit/, but the classical phoneme /θ/ is still used as well depending on the speaker especially in words of English origin. check Hejazi Arabic phonology
  7. ^ [q] is an allophone of /ɡ/ ⟨ق⟩ as in اِسْتِقْلال [ɪstɪqlaːl] or [ɪstɪglaːl]. It occurs in a number of phrases and words due to the influence of Modern Standard Arabic in the 20th century.
  8. ^ ظ⟩ represents /dˤ/ as in ظفر /dˤifir/ & ظل /dˤilː/ or /zˤ/ as in ظرف /zˤarf/, but the classical allophone [ðˤ] is still used as well depending on the speaker. check Hejazi Arabic phonology
  9. ^ The phonemes /p/ and /v/ are only found in loanwords and they can be substituted by /b/ and /f/ respectively depending on the speaker
  10. ^ Word initial and medial /u/ is pronounced [ʊ] or less likely [o̞] as in حُب ʊb], but strictly pronounced [u] at the end of words as in قبو [gabu], and before /w/ as in هُوَّ [huwːa]. All are allophones of the phoneme /u/.
  11. ^ Word initial and medial /i/ is pronounced [ɪ] or less likely [e̞] as in سِرّ [sɪr], but strictly pronounced [i] at the end of words as in مدري [madri], and before /j/ as in هِيَّ [hijːa]. All are allophones of the phoneme /i/.
  12. ^ [ɑ] is an allophone for /aː/ and /a/ in some words such as ألمانيا [almɑːnja] ('Germany'), بابا [bɑːbɑ] ('dad') and يابان [jaːbɑːn] ('Japan').