Help:IPA/Inupiaq

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Alaskan Inuit pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. See Inuit phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Inupiaq and other Inuit languages.

English approximations are in some cases very loose, and only intended to give a general idea of the pronunciation.

Consonants[a]
IPA Examples nearest English equivalent
h savił̣haq[b] ahead
ɣ agiaq (no English equivalent)
j qayaq yes
k kataktuq ski
l alapittuq land
ɬ iłuaqtuq (no English equivalent)
ʎ iaga million
ʎ̥ sikł̣aq (no English equivalent)
m mannik man
n nuna now
ŋ iġñiiŋ sing
ɲ iñuk onion
p putu spoil
q qupak (no English equivalent)
ʁ niġiruq (no English equivalent)
s sisuruq soon
ʂ iqsraq shrub
t talu stop
iñuich, tikikaa rich
v kiviruq[c] love
ʐ iri pleasure
Marginal sounds
f tavsi[c] after
ɴ iġñiq (no English equivalent)
x akłaq,[d] siñikhuni loch (Scottish English)
χ mayuqłuŋa,[d] anniqhuni[b] (no English equivalent)
Vowels[e]
IPA Examples nearest English equivalent
ɐ amiq nut
ɑ nuqaqti[f] father
e qiquayak[f]
i iki really
o mitquq[f]
u niġirugut roof
Long vowels and diphthongs
aapa spa
ai aivig irate
au auk how
kiigaa knee
ia qiaruq fiat
iu kiugaa cute
kuuk coo
ua uamittuq quality
ui uiga gooey

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Between vowels, Inupiaq consonants can occur either short or long. In IPA, long consonants may be written doubled or be followed by the length sign: /nn/ or /nː/.
  2. ^ a b /χ/ exists as a separate sound in some dialects, but is merged into /h/ in others.
  3. ^ a b The labial fricative /v/ and its voiceless allophone are labiodental [v, f] in some dialects and bilabial [β, ɸ] in others.
  4. ^ a b /k, q/ can have fricative allophones [x, χ], respectively, before consonants.
  5. ^ Inupiaq has three vowel phonemes /a, i, u/, which combine in every permutation to form three short vowels, three long vowels, and six diphthongs.
  6. ^ a b c The short vowels /ɐ, i, u/ are lowered to [ɑ, e, o], respectively, when adjacent to uvular consonants /q, ʁ/.