Help:IPA/Irish

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Irish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPAc-ga}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Irish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Irish.

Consonants[1]
Broad Slender
IPA Example English approximation IPA Example English approximation
bain, scuab boot béal, cnáib beautiful
d̪ˠ dorn, nead do (but dental), though (Ireland) dearg, cuid dew
fós, graf, pholl fool fíon, stuif, phríosún fuel
ɡ gasúr, bog goose ɟ geata, carraig argue
ɣ dhorn, ghasúr Spanish higo j dhearg, gheata yellow
h[2] Shasana, shean, thaisce, theanga, hata, na héisc hand N/A
k cáis, mac cart c ceist, mic cube
l̪ˠ[3] labhair, balla filth l̠ʲ[3] leabhair, goilleadh million
[3] fhlaith, bealach pool [3] fhleasc, goile leaf
mór, am moot milis, im mute
n̪ˠ[4] naoi, donna tenth n̠ʲ[4] ní, bainne inch
[4] dona noon [4] bainis opinion
ŋ ngasúr long ɲ ngeata roughly similar to canyon
poll, stop poor príosún, truip pure
ɾˠ barr, carr rule (but tapped) ɾʲ fhréamh, tirim real (but tapped)
Sasana, tús, speal soon ʃ sean, cáis sheet
t̪ˠ taisce, ceart tool (but dental), thorn (Ireland) tír, beirt tune (accents without yod dropping)
w[5] bhain, dubh, mhór, léamh, vóta wood or voodoo bhéal, sibh, mhilis, nimh, veidhlín view
x cháis, taoiseach loch (Scotland) ç cheist, deich, theann, theocht, thiúilip, thiocfadh, thiubh hue (pronounced strongly)
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a mac trap
tá father
ɛ ceist best
mé, Gael pay
ɪ ith, duine kit
mín mean
ɔ olc, deoch core
bó, ceol roll
ʊ dubh, fliuch good
tú too
ə solas, milis sofa
[6] bia idea
[6] fuar truant
əi[6] saghas light
əu[6] leabhar about
Suprasegmentals
IPA Explanation
ˈ primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable);
usually the first syllable except in Munster
ˌ secondary stress (usually found only in compounds)

Comparison to other phonetic transcription schemes[edit]

Materials published elsewhere use somewhat different conventions from those used at Wikipedia. For example, it is a longstanding tradition to leave velarized ("broad") consonants unmarked and mark palatalized ("slender") consonants with the prime, but that is not standard IPA usage.

This section compares the IPA system used at Wikipedia (which is based on that used by Ailbhe Ní Chasaide in her description of Irish in the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, ISBN 0-521-63751-1) with the system used in some other works.

IPA Ní Chasaide (1999)[7]
(Gweedore)
Quiggin (1906)[8]
(Glenties)
Breatnach (1947)[9]
(Ring)
Ó Sé (2000)[10]
(Dingle Peninsula)
Mhac an Fhailigh (1968)[11]
(Erris)
Ó Siadhail (1988)[12]
(Cois Fhairrge)
Foclóir Póca (1993)[13]
(Lárchanúint)
a a æ, α a a a æ:, a: a
æ α: a: ɑː a: ɑ: a:
b b b b b b
b′ b′ b′ b′ b′ b′
c c k′ k′ k′ k′ k′ k′
ç ç ç ç x′ ç x′ x′
d̪ˠ d̪ˠ d d d d d d
d̠ʲ d′ d′ d′ d′ d′ d′
e e: e: e: e: e:
ɛ ɛ ɛ, e e e e e e
ə ə ə ə ə, ɪ ə ə ə
əi αi əi ai əi ai ai
əu au αu əu ou əu au au
f f f f f f
f′ f′ f′ f′ f′ f′
ɡ ɡ g g ɡ g g g
ɣ ɣ γ ɣ ɣ ɣ γ
h h h h, h′ h h h h
i i: i: i: i: i:
ɪ ɪ ï, i, y i i i i i
ia iːə i:ə
j j j j ɣ′ j ɣ′ γ′
ɟ ɟ g′ g′ ɡ′ g′ g′ g′
k k k k k k k k
l̪ˠ l̪ˠ L l l L L l
l l
l̠ʲ l̠ʲ L′ l′ l′ L′ L′ l′
l l′ l′ l′
m m m m m m
m′ m′ m′ m′ m′ m′
n̪ˠ n̪ˠ N n n N N n
n n n
n̠ʲ n̠ʲ N′ n′ n′ N′ N′ n′
n′ n′ n′
ɲ ɲ ɲ ŋ′ ŋ′ ŋ′ ŋ′ ŋ′
ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ
o o:, ɔ: o: o: o: o:
ɔ ʌ ɔ, o̤ o o o o o
p p p p p p
p′ p′ p′ p′ p′ p′
ɾˠ ɾˠ r, R r r r r r
ɾʲ ɾʲ r′ r′ r′ r′ r′ r′
s s s s s s
ʃ ɕ ʃ ʃ ʃ ʃ s′ s′
t̪ˠ t̪ˠ t t t t t t
t̠ʲ t′ t′ t′ t′ t′ t′
u u: u: u: u: u:
ʊ ɤ U u u u u u
ua uːə u:ə
v v′ v′ v′ w′ v′
w w w v v w w v
x x χ x x x x x

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Irish makes contrasts between velarized ("broad") and palatalized ("slender") consonants. Velarized consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ˠ› (note that this is not a capital Y but a Latin letter based on a Greek lowercase gamma, ‹γ›), are pronounced with the back of the tongue raised toward the velum, which happens to the /l/ in English pill in some accents, like RP and General American, but not in Hiberno-English. In Irish orthography, broad consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹a›, ‹o›, ‹u›. "Slender" consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ʲ›, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the ‹y› sound in yes. In Irish orthography, slender consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹e› and ‹i›.
  2. ^ /h/ is neither broad nor slender.
  3. ^ a b c d Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of L sound. Most dialects have merged /l̪ˠ/ and /lˠ/ as [l̪ˠ], and some have also merged /l̠ʲ/ and /lʲ/ as [lʲ]. Still others have merged /lˠ/ and /lʲ/ as [l].
  4. ^ a b c d Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of N sound. Most dialects have merged /n̪ˠ/ and /nˠ/ as [n̪ˠ], and some have also merged /n̠ʲ/ and /nʲ/ as [nʲ]. Still others have merged /nˠ/ and /nʲ/ as [n]. In parts of Munster, /n̠ʲ/ has merged with /ɲ/ in non-initial position.
  5. ^ Also [] in some positions in some dialects.
  6. ^ a b c d All Irish diphthongs have falling sonority; they could therefore more precisely be transliterated as [iə̯, uə̯, əi̯, əu̯].
  7. ^ Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999). "Irish". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 111–16. ISBN 0-521-63751-1. Retrieved 2009-01-21.
  8. ^ Quiggin, E. C. (1906). A Dialect of Donegal: Being the Speech of Meenawannia in the Parish of Glenties . Cambridge University Press.
  9. ^ Breatnach, Risteard B. (1947). The Irish of Ring, Co. Waterford. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-50-2.
  10. ^ Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000). Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish). Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann. ISBN 0-946452-97-0.
  11. ^ Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968). The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-02-2.
  12. ^ Ó Siadhail, Mícheál (1988). Learning Irish: An Introductory Self-tutor. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04224-8.
  13. ^ Foclóir póca: English-Irish/Irish-English dictionary. Dublin: An Gúm. 1993. ISBN 1-85791-047-8.

External links[edit]