^Geminate (double) consonants are written with a doubled letter except for /jj/ and /ww/: anus/ˈa.nʊs/, annus/ˈan.nʊs/. In IPA, they may be written as double or be followed by the length sign: /nn/ or /nː/.
^ abcdIn Classical Latin, ⟨c g t⟩ are always pronounced hard, as /k g t/.
In Ecclesiastical Latin, ⟨c g sc⟩ are pronounced as soft[tʃ dʒ ʃ] before the front vowels ⟨e i y ae oe⟩ and ⟨ti⟩ before a vowel is pronounced [tsi].
^H was generally silent. Sometimes medial ⟨h⟩ is pronounced [k] in Ecclesiastical Latin (mihi); it was pronounced faintly in Classical Latin.[clarification needed]
^ abcdIn Classical Latin, ⟨i u⟩ represent the vowels /ɪ iː and /ʊ uː/, and the consonants /j/, and /w/. Between consonants or when marked with macrons or breves, ⟨i u⟩ are vowels. In some spelling systems, /j w/ are written with the letters ⟨j v⟩. In other cases, consult a dictionary.
In Ecclesiastical Latin, ⟨i⟩ represents the vowel /i/, ⟨j⟩ represents the consonant /j/, ⟨u⟩ represents the vowel /u/ or /w/, and ⟨v⟩ represents /v/ in Ecclesiastical Latin.
In Classical Latin, consonantal ⟨i⟩, between vowels, stands for doubled/jj/: cuius [ˈkujjʊs]. The vowel before the double /jj/ is short, but it is sometimes marked with a macron. When a prefix is added to a word beginning in /j/, the /j/ is usually single: trā-iectum[traː.jɛkˈtũː].
In Classical Latin, /w/ is doubled between vowels only in Greek words, such as Euander/ɛwˈwan.dɛr/.
In Ecclesiastical Latin, consonantal ⟨v⟩ is pronounced as a fricative /v/ except in the combinations ⟨gu su qu⟩, which are pronounced /gw sw kw/.
^The labialized velar /kʷ/ was pronounced as labio-palatalized [kᶣ] before the vowels /ɪ, iː, ɛ, eː/.
^/l/ has two allophones in Classical Latin: velarized [ɫ], at the end of a word or before another consonant, and plain [l] in other positions.
^ abcIn Classical Latin, the combination of a vowel and ⟨m⟩ at the end of a word, or a vowel and ⟨n⟩ before ⟨s⟩ or ⟨f⟩, represents a long nasal vowel.
^In both Classical and Ecclesiastical Latin, /n/ is pronounced as [ŋ] before /k, ɡ/.
The digraph ⟨gn⟩ is pronounced as [ŋn] in Classical Latin but [ɲ] in Ecclesiastical Latin.
^In Ecclesiastical Latin, /s/ between vowels is often pronounced [z].
^Classical Latin has long and short vowels. If vowel length is marked, long vowels are marked with macrons, ⟨ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, ȳ⟩, and short vowels with breves ⟨ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ, y̆⟩. Ecclesiastical Latin does not distinguish between long and short vowels.