Help:IPA/Lombard

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The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet represents Lombard pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Words are listed for the two major varieties of the language — Western and Eastern Lombard. Neither is preferred at Wikipedia, except in cases where a local pronunciation is clearly more relevant. See the respective articles to learn more.

There exist several proposed orthographies, none of which is comprehensive enough to represent the whole dialectal span of the language, and a final agreement on which should be the common written standard of Lombard is yet to be reached. Classical Milanese orthography is here used for Western Lombard, and Eastern Unified Orthography for Eastern Lombard: when in one row a word is spelled the same in both orthographies, it is only given once.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b (WL) biott, dubbi, (EL) biót, döbe bud
d (WL) lader, drizz, (EL) làder, drécc day
dz (WL) mezzaluna, ruzzà, mezz metter[1][2][3] cods
(WL) veggia, gent, giovin, resgiô, lecc grand, (EL) ègia, regiùr[1][4] Joey
f (WL) boffà, oeuv, (EL) bofà, öf[1] fade
ɡ (WL) gatt, bagaj, (EL) gat, bagài good
h (EL) presidènt, sùra, dés, sich, sènt, pesàda, sigóla, pès[3][5] ham
k (WL) can, marches, foeugh, (EL) cà, marchés, föch[1] sky
l lacc, caròtola, (WL) ballon, vioeula, (EL) balù, viöla, pedriöl[6] letter
m (WL) mes'cià, (EL) mes-cià, banfà, campiù[7][8] maid
n nòcc, (WL) danee, (EL) danér, cantù, sen[7][8] den
ŋ (EL) ànga, mànche[7][8] long
ɲ (WL) gnucca, legn, (EL) gnöca, lègn, àzegn[8] opinion
p (WL) piasè, goeubb, (EL) piasér, gòp[1] spite
r (WL) roeuda, porscell, corr, caròtola, vioeula, (EL) röda, porsèl, cór[6] trilled r
s (WL) pressident, sora, dis, zuccher, lenzoeu, cazzoeula, mezz, dersett, scova, (EL) presidènt, sùra, dés, sich, sènt, pesàda, sigóla, pès, scùa[1][2][3] same
ʃ (WL) pesciada, scigolla, pesg, scenna, scova, (EL) scéna[1][9] shame
t (WL) todesch, giald, (EL) todèsch, zalt[1] stay
ts (WL) zuccher, lenzoeu, cazzoeula, mezz, dersett, (EL) söcher, lensöl, casöla, mès, dersèt[1][2][3] pets
(WL) mas'c, vegg, ciocca, cinch, cent, tucc trii, (EL) mascc, ècc, ciòca, lesiù[1][5] chain
ʋ (WL) violin, el vent, cavej, on pò de vent, (EL) viulì, ol vènt[1][10] between wet and vet
z desmentegà, (WL) basell, s'gionf, mezzaluna, ruzzà, mezz metter, (EL) bazèl, sgiónf, mezalüna, rözà, mès méter, zét, zùen, rezùr[1][2][3][4] Zoey
ʒ (WL) resgiô, desmentegà[1][4] vision
Non-native consonants
ʎ (WL) botteglia, (EL) butìglia million
 
Semivowels
IPA Examples English approximation
j (WL) piatt, tajà, mej, lezion, (EL) piàt, taià, mèi, cc grant, töcc tré[1] yes
w (WL) aqua, sguerc, s'ciao, (EL) àqua, sguèrs way
Vowels[11]
IPA Examples English approximation
Short vowels
a abità, (WL) mamma, Bressa, perchè, semper,[12] (EL) mama, Brèsa, cantù, pader, lombard, nacc, ach, italià[13] manner (Scotland)
e pelà, perchè, (WL) semper, cortellin, elencà, elettrega, vedemm, besògn,[12] (EL) envéren, méter, sèmper, elencà, elètrega, edóm, bezògn, öle, vendedùr, dét, prensépe, isé, prém, mel, dré, seré, décc, énte[14] bay
ɛ (WL) regn, adess, invern, metter, savè, domènega, (EL) règn, adès, pelà, perchè, sèmper, elencà, elètrega, edóm, bezògn, öle, vendedùr, prensépe, setèmber[14] bed
i (WL) inscì, primm, Milan, elettrega, vedemm, besògn,[12] (EL) curtilì, saì, dümìnica, Milà, simpàtech, finìcc, cunusìcc, mìa, giardì beet, but shorter
o (EL) s-ciào, Cóm, cólda, ólter, ólta, póch, conós, óst, modéren, colùr, popolasiù, compàgn, piemontés, ciót, faró, alóra, próa, segónt[15] law (RP), but shorter
ɔ (WL) nòmm, anmò, Còmm, oeuli, vòlta, pocch, cognoss, (EL) nòm, amò, mama, Brèsa[13][15] off
œ (WL) oeugg bird (RP), but shorter
ø (EL) öcc, öle, töarà, cöcömer, pröa, töcc, piö, löster, cöntà, encö, zöga, löna, scör, cönt, öndes[15]
u (WL) agost, modern, pocch, cognoss, sô, color, popolazion, comun, tovarà, cocumer, (EL) sul, culùr, pupulasiù, piemuntés, cumpuzisiù, alùra, amùr, put, nasiù cool, but shorter
y (WL) tucc, pussee, luster, comunicazion, busecca, (EL) lüna, scür, cümü, büzèca foot (Scotland)
Short nasal vowels[8]
ã (WL) banfà, campion, canton sang (Scotland)
(WL) sentì, asen, venditor sang (Southern U.S.)
ĩ (WL) prinzipi, simpategh ring
ũ (WL) compagn, piemontes, composizion no English equivalent; nasalized /u/
(WL) cun no English equivalent; nasalized /y/
Long vowels
ɑː (WL) pader, lombard, andaa, calda, alter father
(WL) mel, dree bay
(WL) dii, prinzipi, finii beet
(WL) calda, alter, oeuli, vòlta[15] law (RP)
(WL) ciod, faroo, alora, amor cool
øː (WL) proeuva, incoeu, oeuli, vòlta[15] bird (RP)
(WL) giuga, luna, scur, cuu, cognossuu few (Scotland)
Long nasal vowels[8]
ãː (WL) vanga, manchi, anca, italian sang (Scotland)
ẽː (WL) settember, seren sang (Southern U.S.)
ĩː (WL) dinc, vint, minga, giardin being
ũː (WL) segond, pont, nazion no English equivalent; nasalized /uː/
ỹː (WL) cunt, vundes, comun no English equivalent; nasalized /yː/
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ (WL) insemma [ĩˈsɛma], (EL) enma [ɛnˈsɛma] primary stress
ˌ (WL) tirabuscion [ˌti(ː)rabyˈʃũː], (EL) tirabosù [ˌtiraboˈsu] secondary stress
. (WL) sciador [ʃi.aˈduːr], (EL) sciadùr [ʃi.aˈdur] syllable break
ː (WL) tròpp dolz [ˌtrɔ‿ˈdːul(t)s], (EL) tròp dóls [ˌtrɔ‿ˈdːols][3] geminated consonant

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lombard shares with a number of languages final devoicing of obstruents, as well as final voicing of normally devoiced consonants (except stops) immediately before other voiced or nasal consonants: e.g. Western pesg d'inscì [ˌpeːʒ dĩˈʃi], Eastern s d'isé [ˌpɛz diˈse]; in such cases, word-final /dz/, /dʒ/, /tʃ/ and /ts/ may reduce to, respectively, [z], [ʒ], [ʃ], [s] in the West, while in the East /dʒ/ and /tʃ/ are generally realized as [j].
  2. ^ a b c d /dz/ and /ts/ only contrast with /z/ and /s/ in some Western dialects.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Complete regressive assimilation at word boundaries is common in regular speech: it occurs between a final occlusive and the initial consonant of the following word. In such instances, /z/ becomes [dz] and [h] turns back to [s].
  4. ^ a b c /ʒ/ is only phonemically distinctive in a few areas of Western Lombardy: everywhere else it is realized as [] or (certain Eastern dialects) [z]. Note that [ʒ] may also be an allophonic rendering of preconsonantal /z/ in dialects such as Comasco.
  5. ^ a b In some Eastern variants, /s/ is pronounced [h], which leads the /s(t)j/ cluster to be realized as [htʃ] or, after a consonant, [].
  6. ^ a b Western Lombard generally drops word-final /l/ after a long vowel (e.g. pedrioeu [pedriˈøː] vs Eastern pedriöl [pedriˈøl]). In addition, its Northern dialects rhotacized Latin non-geminate /l/ in all (semi)vowel-internal instances (e.g. [ˈskʰɔla][ˈskøːra]; compare [ˈbʊlːa][ˈbula]).
  7. ^ a b c In dialects that feature syllable-final nasals, assimilation to the following consonant always takes place, even when in an ending nasal+stop cluster, the stop is dropped before another one (e.g. Eastern guànt bnch [ˌɡwam ˈbjaŋk], Western guant bianch [ˌɡwãː ˈbjãːk]). In this list, the [ɱ] in /nf/~/nv/ is simply transcribed ⟨m⟩.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Only the Western varieties feature nasal vowels, as the realization of a vowel followed by a phonemic nasal consonant within a closed syllable (e.g. Western temp [ˈtẽːp] vs Eastern tép [ˈtep]), the only exceptions being word-final vowels followed by a nasal other than /n/ and word-final stressed short vowels plus /n/: these are the nearly sole cases which in Eastern Lombard have the same realization (e.g. Western Giovann [dʒuˈʋan], Eastern Gioàn [dʒoˈan]; compare Milan [miˈlãː] vs Milà [miˈla]). All stressed nasal vowels are long, and in Eastern dialects are always rendered through a vowel alone word-finally and, sometimes, word-internally.
  9. ^ In Eastern dialects /ʃ/ may only occur in foreign borrowings, along with /ʎ/.
  10. ^ Compare Eastern Lombard postvocalic /v/-dropping: caèi [kaˈɛj], on pò de ènt [om ˈpɔ de ˈɛnt].
  11. ^ Only in Western Lombard, though few minimal pairs actually occur, vowel length is phonemic (with long vowels solely appearing in stressed position), while in Eastern dialects the same contrast tends to be expressed through vowel quality or other means (e.g. Western god [ˈɡuːt] "he/she enjoys" vs gott [ˈgut] "drops", Eastern gót [ˈɡot] vs góte [ˈɡotɛ]).
  12. ^ a b c In some north Western dialects, unstressed /e/ of some words is [a], in others [i].
  13. ^ a b Final rounding of unstressed /a/ to [ɔ] is possible in Eastern dialects.
  14. ^ a b Eastern unstressed /e/ is pronounced either high-mid [e] or low-mid [ɛ].
  15. ^ a b c d e [] is a north Western rendering of certain occurrences of stressed /ɔ/ (alterning with [øː] in other realizations), /ɑː/ (both corresponding to /o/ in the East), and of /øː/ (alterning with [ɔ] in other realizations and equivalent to Eastern /ø/).

External links[edit]