Help:IPA/Mandarin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Standard Mandarin pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPAc-cmn}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Standard Chinese phonology for more detail on the sounds of Mandarin Chinese.

Consonants
IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example English approximation
f f fan
j y-/-i- yes
k g k skin
k k' kin
l l 來(来) leaf
m m moon
n n ㄋ,ㄣ,ㄢ noon
ŋ -ng ㄥ,ㄤ song
p b p 幫(帮) span
p p' pan
ɻ[a] r- j row
s s same
ʂ sh show
t d t stop
t t' top
ts z ts buds
tsʰ c ts' cats
j ch somewhat like jean[b]
tɕʰ q ch' somewhat like cheese[b]
ɕ x hs 曉(晓) somewhat like sheep[b]
ʈʂ zh ch jar
ʈʂʰ ch ch' church
w w-/-u- water
x h horror
ɥ yu-/-ü-[c] yü-/-ü- no English equivalent; like French huit
Vowels
IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example English approximation
a a ㄚ,ㄢ,ㄤ 阿,安,盎 car
er êrh
ɤ e ê / o[d] wood
ɛ yan/-ian yen/-ien ㄧㄢ set
yuan/-üan ㄩㄢ
e ye/-ie, yue/-üe eh 也,月 hey
ə en,[e] eng ên, êng ㄣ,ㄥ 本,冷 atop
ɚ er êrh far [f]
i yi/-i city
o wo/-uo[g] o[h] boy
ɻ̩ zhi, chi, shi, ri ih [i] 之,吃,師(师),日 somewhat like sir[j]
ɹ̩ zi, ci, si û 子,次,私 no English equivalent
u wu/-u cool
ʊ -ong -ung ㄨㄥ,ㄩㄥ 冬,用 only
y yu/-ü[c] yü/-ü no English equivalent; like French lune
Diphthongs
ai ai time
au ao somewhat like out
ei ei[e] face
ou ou[e] 歐(欧) show
Tones
IPA Pinyin Wade–Giles Bopomofo Chinese Example Tone number Description
á ā a1 tone 1 high level [˥]
ǎ á a2 ㄚˊ tone 2 mid rising [˧˥]
à ǎ a3 ㄚˇ tone 3 medially, low [˩]; initially, mid falling [˧˩]; finally, low rising [˩˧]; in isolation, dipping [˧˩˧]
â à a4 ㄚˋ tone 4 high falling [˥˩]
a a a0 ˙ㄚ tone 0 or 5
(toneless)
mid [˧] after all tones but 4, where it is low [˩]
Note: Pinyin uses the same diacritics as IPA but with different values.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Also transcribed as ʐ in older literature.
  2. ^ a b c [ɕ, tɕ, tɕʰ] are always followed by [i], [j], [y], or [ɥ].
  3. ^ a b ü (/y/) is spelled u after j, q, x in pinyin since /u/ cannot occur after them.
  4. ^ This sound is spelled ⟨o⟩ after ⟨k, k', h⟩ in Wade-Giles.
  5. ^ a b c wei, you/yu, wen/wên are spelled respectively ui, iu, un in Pinyin and Wade-Giles but are pronounced identically when they are preceded by a consonant.
  6. ^ The rhotic vowel also appears in erhua.
  7. ^ This sound is spelled ⟨o⟩ after ⟨b, p, m, f⟩ in Pinyin.
  8. ^ ㄨㄛ is spelled as ⟨o⟩, except for ⟨k, k', h, sh⟩ (as ⟨kuo, k'uo, huo, shuo⟩) in Wade-Giles.
  9. ^ This symbol is rarely used and usually omitted during writing.
  10. ^ Voiced continuants (also transcribed [ɨ, ɯ] or [ʐ̩, z̩]) reflecting the character of the preceding consonant[clarification needed]

References[edit]

  • Duanmu, San (2007). The Phonology of Standard Chinese (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Lee, Wai-Sum; Zee, Eric (2003). "Standard Chinese (Beijing)" (PDF). Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 33 (1): 109–112. doi:10.1017/S0025100303001208.
  • Lin, Yen-Hwei (2007). The Sounds of Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

External links[edit]