Help:IPA/Neapolitan

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The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Neapolitan language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Consonants[1]
IPA Examples English approximation
b banca, campagna, abbrile[2][3] bike
d dint’â casa, verde[3] done
dz pensiero, canzone, cazetta[3][4][5] dads
maggìa, Francia[2][3] jab
f fatto, fernuto fast
ɡ (ɡ)[6] gatto, negro, manco[3] gas
ʝ ɟ[7] famiglia, guaglione[2] roughly like yes, but stronger
k puorco, chiesa, quanno scar
l auciello, luglio lip or feel
m maggìa, ammore, infierno[8] mother
n monte, pensiero[8] nest
ŋ songo, cinco[8] singing
ɲ cugnato, ogne[2] roughly like canyon
p primmo, coppia spin
r grotta, sciore, camorra trilled r
s sano, presenza, stato[5] sorry
ʃ rascia, pesce, scarparo[2][5] ship
t tanto, rete, fatto star
ts zùccaro, miezzo, pazienza[4] cats
auciello, cerasa, faccia somewhat between watch and wash[9]
v vufero, spavetto, vraccio vent
z snodo, sdignata[5] zipper
ʒ sbagliato, sveglia[5] vision
 
Semivowels[10]
IPA Examples English approximation
j iennaro/jennaro, auciello, cchiù you
w fuoco, guaglione wine
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Short vowels
a æ[7] sciaurato, campagna manner
e viento, pecché roughly like pay, but shorter
ɛ spavetto, dente[11] bed
ə nùmmero, coppia; pecché[12] again
i primmo; insieme see, but shorter
o compongo, coppia law (RP), but shorter
ɔ còmmodo, Maronna[11] off
u urdemo, nùmmero, Napule tool, but shorter
Long vowels[13]
ɑː ɐː
æː
[7]
sciaurato, Napule father or bad
ej
ɛj
æɨ
[7]
insieme, peso late
ɛː scena, vero bear (RP) or late
tipo, zie see
ow
ɔw
əʉ
[7]
ammore, dint’ô sciore law (RP) or low
ɔː soje, cose dog or low
ajute, fernuto tool
Other vowels
ɨ[7] [examples needed] roses
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ cozze [ˈkɔttsə] primary stress
ˌ lievemente [ˌljevəˈmɛndə] secondary stress
. diamante [di.aˈmandə] syllable break

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ If a consonant is doubled after a vowel, it is geminated; all consonants can be geminated except for /z/ and /ʒ/. In IPA, gemination can be represented either by doubling the consonant (fatto [ˈfattə], miezzo [ˈmjettsə]) or by the length marker ⟨ː⟩. Neapolitan, like standard Italian, also has a sandhi phenomenon called syntactic gemination, usually represented graphically: e.g. è ssoje [ˌɛ sˈsɔːjə].
  2. ^ a b c d e /b/, /dʒ/, /ʝ/, /ɲ/ and /ʃ/ are always geminated after a vowel.
  3. ^ a b c d e After a nasal, /p/, /t/, /tʃ/, /k/ and /ts/ are replaced by their voiced counterparts [b], [d], [dʒ], [ɡ], [dz].
  4. ^ a b When not preceded by ⟨n⟩, ⟨z⟩ can represent either /dz/ or /ts/, according to the cases.
  5. ^ a b c d e ⟨s⟩ is pronounced:
    • /s/ when geminated or when not preceded by ⟨n⟩ and followed by ⟨t⟩, a vowel or a semivowel;
    • /ʃ/ when followed by any voiceless consonant except ⟨t⟩;
    • /z/ when followed by ⟨n⟩, ⟨d⟩, ⟨r⟩ or ⟨l⟩;
    • /ʒ/ when followed by any voiced consonant except ⟨n⟩, ⟨d⟩, ⟨r⟩ or ⟨l⟩;
    • /dz/ when preceded by ⟨n⟩.
  6. ^ If the two characters ⟨ɡ⟩ and ⟨Opentail g.svg⟩ do not match and if the first looks like a ⟨γ⟩, then you have an issue with your default font. See Help:IPA § Rendering issues.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Chiefly occurring in Apulian dialects.
  8. ^ a b c Nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/ is a velar [ŋ], and the one in /nf/~/nv/ is a labiodental [ɱ] (though for simplicity ⟨m⟩ takes its place in this list). A nasal before /b/ and /m/ is always the labial [m].
  9. ^ When not geminated nor following another consonant, /tʃ/ tends to be pronounced [ʃ].
  10. ^ Two diphthongs, uo /wo(ː)/ and ie /je(ː)/, are always stressed, unless they are at the very end of a word.
  11. ^ a b Open-mid vowels /ɛ ɔ/ can only appear when the syllable is stressed.
  12. ^ After the stressed syllable, /a e o/ change to [ə]. This sound is sometimes also found before the stressed syllable and spelled ⟨e⟩, as is fernì [fərˈni].
  13. ^ Vowels are long when stressed in non-final open syllables: casa [ˈkɑːsə] ~ cassa [ˈkassə], or when compounds of preposition a and an article: a + ’o = ô.