Help:IPA/Sardinian

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The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Sardinian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Sardinian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Sardinian.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b bàca, bía, bàbaru bike
β abaudítu, ebréu, nebodàza[1] between baby and bevy
d dórmi, sàrdu, doadúra, (Logudorese) andalibéni done
dz acasazàre, prànzu, cazàre dads
giòba, Barbàgia, culingiòsso, panagélicu jab
ɖ abbaraddàdu, múndu, chervéddu About this sound [keɾˈveɖːu] [2] dine (Indian English)
ð abbacàda, càntat [ˈkantaða], a thèrga[1] this
f fòras, ufànu fast
ɡ gàbbia, ghèrra, ghía, sangràu, fógu gas
ɣ buttèga, sa ghèrra, àrcu ’e chélu[1] like go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
k corsìa, àlpaca, chélu, cuàdra, brúke, piachènte[3] scar
l levantínu, abbalaucàdu lip
ʎ brigliàju, origliètas, bragliósu, contissígliu roughly like million
m meledàda, mamudínu, acampàda[4] mother
n nebodàza, energía nest
ŋ abbengàre, abbiénghidu[4] sing
ɲ apitzigàgnulu, gnagnajólu roughly like canyon
ɳ afandàre, múndu roughly like corndog
p pabasólu, písiri, splajàre, ’alvispàltu spin
ɾ carèna, dijimíre batter (American English)
r rasàda, ferrútzos trilled r
s secàda, stàntes, dilmíssu sorry
ʃ sceléstu, lescénscia, balàscios, iscíri ship
t tanéddu, àteu star
ts (Logudorese) tzacàre, tzarra, catzare, Tzitzéddu, (Campidanese) tzaccàu, tzitàdi cats
ciabbàta, cèdda, cíbbu, ciacósu, celibbàdu chip
θ althrolítu, furríthu, tharalàu, atheddína, istàthu thin
v vacàda, sérvu, jurafàlzu, sa faína vent
z casàra, ixémplu, su sòle zipper
ʒ (Logudorese) abbajocàda, ajózi, conjugàdu, òjos, (Campidanese) pàxi, axédu, déxi measure
ʔ[5] cu, connòschere, sa pàche, sa lúna getting (Cockney: [ˈɡeʔɪŋ])
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a Àrba, areddàre, àteru, proiàt roughly like father
e béni, méri, àpe, isdentàdu roughly like pay
ɛ xèna, lèghere, ghèneru[6] bed
i fílu, síncheru, pàxi, ixémplu see
o ógru, cótzula, abbaósu; càndo law (British English)
ɔ connòschere, ògros[6] off
u domu, úrtima too
 
Semivowels
j éja, (Logudorese) giója,[7] calzulaiéddu,[8] (Campidanese) Sardínnia[9] you
 
SuprasegmentalsÌ
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ càntat [ˈkantaða] primary stress
ˌ propiamènte [ˌpɾopi.aˈmɛnte] secondary stress
. vía [ˈvi.a] syllable break

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Phonemic /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ between vowels are usually realized as [β], [ð], [ɣ], and sometimes even omitted. Omission does not normally occur when those are the realizations for phonemic /p/, /t/, /k/.
  2. ^ After a vowel it is a double voiced retroflex stop, represented by [ɖɖ] or [ɖː].
  3. ^ Usually, /k/ is written down following either the Italian style (by using ⟨ch⟩ before e and i: e.g. anchilla, chelu, chena, chi, etc.), the Byzantine style (by using ⟨k⟩: e.g. ankilla, kelu, kena, ki, etc.) or (now rare) the Spanish style (by using ⟨qu⟩ before e and i: e.g. anquilla, quelu, quena, qui, etc.)
  4. ^ a b Nasal consonants always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/~/nk/ is velar [ŋ], but before /v/ or /f/, it is labiodental [ɱ] (transcribed here as ⟨m⟩). It is [m] only before /p/, /b/ or /m/ and [ɳ] before /ɖ/.
  5. ^ Glottal stops usually occur for intervocalic /k/ in some dialects of Barbagia, and for intervocalic /l/ and /n/ in some dialects of Sarrabus.
  6. ^ a b [ɛ] and [ɔ] occur in stressed position if the following syllable does not contain /i/ (unless it is a development of /e/), /u/, or a palatal.
  7. ^ One of the cases in which the grapheme ⟨j⟩ does not represent the sound [ʒ].
  8. ^ A rare case, using the grapheme ⟨i⟩, normally representing a full vowel /i/.
  9. ^ Phonetically transcribed as [saɾˈdinja], as opposed to Sardígna in Logudorese, transcribed as [saɾˈdiɲɲa]. In Campidanese this semivowel is more usual.

Further reading[edit]

  • Wagner, Max Leopold (1989) [1957]. Dizionario Etimologico Sardo (in Italian). Trois. 
  • Blasco Ferrer, Eduardo (1994). ELLO ELLUS, grammatica della lingua sarda (in Italian). Nuoro (Sardinia): Poliedro Edizioni. 
  • Blasco Ferrer, Eduardo (2007). Sardo e italiano a confronto. CUEC. 
  • Mura, Riccardo; Virdis, Maurizio (2015). Caratteri e strutture fonetiche, fonologiche e prosodiche della lingua sarda. Il sintetizzatore vocale SINTESA (in Italian). Condaghes. 
  • Puddu, Mario (2015) [2000]. Ditzionàriu de sa limba e de sa cultura sarda (in Sardinian). Condaghes.