Help:IPA/Sicilian

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The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Sicilian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Sicilian phonology and Sicilian vowel system for a more thorough look at the sounds of Sicilian.

To learn more about the correspondence between spelling and sounds, see Sicilian orthography.

Consonants[1]
IPA Examples English approximation
b bancheri, abbentu, campu[2][3] bike
c chiancheri, cchiù, chiḍḍu[3] askew
ç ciumi, çiuçiari, xuri huge
d denti, sarda, addumannari[3][4] done (with the tongue touching the teeth)
dz cunzigghiu, panza, n sicilianu[3][5] dads
Giappuni, lèggiri, manciari[2][3] jab
ɖ beḍḍu, cavaḍḍu, cuntrariu[2][3] done (Indian English)
f figghiu, cufuruna, nfarrainari[3] fast
ɡ (ɡ)[6] aggrancari, gula, jancu[3][7][8] gas
ɟ figghia, àghiru, gherciu, tri jorna, jìnchiri[7][8][9] Montague
k canigghia, accussì, quarru, muncu[3] scar
l valanza, còllira let
m mèttiri, lemmu, nfamia[10] mother
n novu, cunnùciri, nzèmmula[10] nice
ŋ loncu, ngrisi, sangu[8][10] singing
ɳ landreḍḍu, contra[10] roughly like corndog
ɲ lagnusìa, gnuranti, nchiostru[2][8][10] roughly like canyon
p tuppu, pirchì, sìmprici[3] spin
ɾ cornu, rùmpiri, parrata, lu denti[4][11] batter (American English)
ɽ àutri, mandracchiu[11] try
s sugnu, spiari, cassulari[5] sorry
ʂ strata, mastru[5][12] shred
ʃ cascia, pisci, scena[2][5][13] ship
t tanticchia, stritta, muntunarìa[3] star (with the tongue touching the teeth)
ts zappagghiuni, pizzulari, canzuna, n sicilianu[2][3][5] cats
pacenzia, vucceri, canciamentu[3][13] clentch or clash
ʈ àutri, quatratu, cuntrariu[3] stray (Indian English)
v vucca, aviri, avvucatu, nfarrainari[3] vent
z sbagghiu, sdisinnata, rosmarina[5] zest
Semivowels
IPA Examples English approximation
j jinnaru, lu jornu, pajari, piaciri[7][9] you
w quannu, acqua, guadagnu wine
 
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Stressed vowels[14]
a squatra, càdiri, cità father
ɛ beni, tèniri, cafè bed
i stidda, arrìmula, ripitì see
ɔ sonu, vòmmira, masinnò off
u zùccuru, curnutu, nacchiù tool
Unstressed vowels
a squatra, aviri grandma
ɪ e càdiri, gammali[15] bitter or bay
ɪ càdiri, fitusu bitter
ʊ curnutu, càudu pull
 
Suprasegmentals
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ capiḍḍu [kaˈpiɖɖʊ] primary stress
ˌ suttasupra [ˌsuttaˈsuːpɾa] secondary stress
. triangulari [ʈɽɪ.aŋŋʊˈlaːɾɪ] syllable break
ː pirtusu [pɪɾˈtuːsʊ] long vowel[16]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ If a consonant is doubled after a vowel, it is geminated. In IPA, gemination can be represented either by doubling the consonant (fattu [ˈfattʊ], mezzu [ˈmɛttsʊ]) or by the length marker ⟨ː⟩. Sicilian, like standard Italian, also has a sandhi phenomenon called syntactic gemination, generally not represented graphically: e.g. è loncu [ˌɛ lˈlɔŋkʊ].
  2. ^ a b c d e f /b/, /dʒ/, /ɖ/, /ɲ/, /ʃ/ and /ts/ are always geminated after a vowel, before a vowel or a semivowel.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o In a few (but not all) dialects, /p/, /t/, /ts/, /tʃ/, /ʈ/, /k/, /c/ and for some even /f/, when preceded by a nasal, may be replaced by their voiced counterparts [b], [d], [dz], [dʒ], [ɖ], [ɡ], [ɟ], [v].
  4. ^ a b The common realization of vowel-following single /d/ is [ɾ].
  5. ^ a b c d e f ⟨s⟩ may be rendered as [ʃ]~[ɕ] before voiceless consonants, [ʒ]~[ʑ] before voiced or nasal consonants, and is always [ts]~[dz] after a nasal; it merges with following /ʈ/~/ʈʂ/ giving [ʂː] (e.g. finestra [fɪˈnɛʂː(ɽ)a]).
  6. ^ If the two characters ⟨ɡ⟩ and ⟨Opentail g.svg⟩ do not match and if the first looks like a ⟨γ⟩, then you have an issue with your default font. See Help:IPA § Rendering issues.
  7. ^ a b c When not geminated nor preceded by a consonant, /ɡ/ and /ɟ/ may also be realized as [ɣ] / [j], respectively, or dropped.
  8. ^ a b c d After ⟨n⟩, /ɡ/ and /ɟ/ might nasalize to [ŋ] / [ɲ], respectively (e.g. lingua [ˈliŋŋwa]).
  9. ^ a b When /j/ is geminated or preceded by a nasal it is replaced by [ɟ] (e.g. un jencu [uɲ ˈɟɛŋkʊ]~[uɲ ˈɲɛŋkʊ]).
  10. ^ a b c d e Nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nk/~/nɡ/ is a velar [ŋ], the one in /nc/~/nɟ/~/nɲ/ is a palatal [ɲ], the one in /nʈ/~/nɖ/ is a retroflex [ɳ], and the one in /nf/~/nv/ is a labiodental [ɱ] (though for simplicity ⟨m⟩ is used here). A nasal before /p/, /b/ and /m/ is a labial [m].
  11. ^ a b ⟨r⟩ has a variety of realizations, the most common of which are: [ɾ] if single, though usually [ɽ] after ⟨d⟩ / ⟨t⟩ (or even [ɹ̝]~[ʐ] / [ɹ̝̊]~[ʂ], respectively); [ɾː], [], [ɹ̝ː] or [ʐː] if geminated. At the beginning of a word it is always geminated.
  12. ^ Always geminated.
  13. ^ a b When not geminated nor following another consonant, /tʃ/ tends to be pronounced [ʃ].
  14. ^ In recent borrowings, mostly from Italian, and certain limited compounds, /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ might also appear in unstressed position (e.g. ristoranti [ɾːɪstɔˈɾantɪ], comegghiè [kɔmɛɟˈɟɛ]).
  15. ^ Salentino contrasts unstressed /i/ and /e/.
  16. ^ Vowels are long when stressed in non-final open syllables: vèniri [ˈvɛːnɪɾɪ] ~ vènniri [ˈvɛnnɪɾɪ], or when they are the result of phonetic mergers, in which case they are spelled with a circumflex: nta lu = ntô, pi lu = pû.

External links[edit]

  • Avolio, Francesco. "siciliani, calabresi e salentini, dialetti" [Sicilian, Calabrian and Salentine dialects]. Enciclopedia Treccani (in Italian).