^ abcdeIn many of the dialects that have an apicalrhotic consonant, a recursive sandhi process of retroflexion occurs, and clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realisations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish, they are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt]. Nevertheless, retroflexion might occur in some varieties of Finland Swedish, especially among young speakers and in fast speech.
^Swedish /ɧ/ varies regionally and is sometimes [xʷ], [ɸˠ], or [ʂ].
^/r/ varies considerably in different dialects. It is pronounced alveolar or similarly in virtually all dialects, but in South Swedish dialects, it is uvular, similar to the Parisian French "r". At the beginning of a syllable, it can also be pronounced as a fricative [ʒ], as in English "genre" or "vision".
^ abThe quality of the vowels tends to change a lot between Finland dialects and those of Sweden, especially Southern and Central Sweden. In general terms, [ɑː] is realised more often as [ɒː] in Sweden and as a true [ɑː] in Finland. In the area of Helsinski (Helsingfors) it may be fully centralised [äː]. No difference in the vowel quality occurs in Finland Swedish.
^ abcdBefore /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: the unrounded vowels /ɛ/ and /ɛː/ are lowered to [æ] and [æː], whereas the rounded /œ/ and /øː/ are lowered to open-mid [œ] and [œː]. For simplicity, no distinction is made between the mid [œ] and the open-mid [œ], with both being transcribed as ⟨œ⟩. Note that younger speakers use lower allophones [ɶ] and [ɶː].
^ ab[ɵ] and [ʉ] are unstressed allophones of a single phoneme /ɵ/ (stressed /ɵ/ is always realized as [ɵ]):
[ɵ] is used in all closed syllables (as in kultur[kɵlˈtʉːr]) but also in some open syllables, as in musikal[mɵsɪˈkɑːl]. Some cases involve resyllabification caused by retroflexion, which makes the syllable open, as in kurtisan[kɵʈɪˈsɑːn].
[ʉ] appears only in open syllables. In some cases, [ʉ] is the only possible realization, as in känguru[ˈɕɛŋːɡʉrʉ], such as when /ɵ/ appears in hiatus, as in duell[dʉˈɛlː].
In other cases, [ɵ] is in free variation with [ʉ] so musik can be pronounced as [mɵˈsiːk] or [mʉˈsiːk] (Riad (2014:28-29)). For simplicity, only [ɵ] will be used.
^ abThe distinction between compressed [ʉ] and protruded [ʏ] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
Swedish compressed [ʉ] sounds very close to German compressed [ʏ] (as in müssen[ˈmʏsn̩]).
Swedish protruded [ʏ] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [ʏ], and it is very close to Norwegian protruded [ʏ] (as in nytt[nʏtː]).
^ abThe distinction between compressed [ʉː] and protruded [yː] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
Swedish compressed [ʉː] sounds very close to German compressed [yː] (as in üben[ˈyːbn̩]).
Swedish protruded [yː] sounds more similar to English unrounded [iː] (as in leave) than to German compressed [yː], and it is very close to Norwegian protruded [yː] (as in lys[lyːs]).
^ abPlaced before the stressed syllable. For words with the second toneme, ⟨²⟩ will be used instead of the primary stress mark.
^ abUnless it is needed, the narrow phonetic transcription of Swedish tonemes is not to be used in articles.
^ abThe variety of Swedish spoken on the Åland Islands usually resembles phonetically speaking the dialects of the Uppland area rather than Finland Swedish, but the pitch accent is largely missing
^ abFinland Swedish, as well as a few accents of Mainland Sweden, have a simple primary stress rather than a contrastive pitch accent. In such accents, anden (meaning 'wild duck') and anden (meaning 'spirit') are pronounced identically.
Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 140–142, ISBN0-521-63751-1
Reuter, Mikael (1971). "Vokalerna i finlandsvenska: En instrumentell analys och ett försök till systematisering enligt särdrag". Studier i nordisk filologi (in Swedish). Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. 46: 240–249.