Help:IPA/Welsh

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Welsh language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-cy}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Welsh phonology and Welsh orthography for a more thorough look at the sounds of Welsh.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
b bach, cwbl, mab be
d dydd, cadw, tad do
joio, garej, diengyd (colloquial) just
ð ddoe, deuddeg, bedd wither
f ffenest, ei phen, cyffro, corff find
ɡ glân, cegin, cig get
h haul, gwahanol have
j iaith, geiriadur you
k cig, acw, ac sky, cool
l leicio, Alban, bol like
ɬ llyfr, cyllell[1] No equivalent in English; similar to the sound in hl
m mab, cymaint, dim me
fy mhen, ym Mhen-y-bont No equivalent in English. Approximately like wormhole
n nerth, anadlu, gwyn no
fy nhad, yn Nhywyn No equivalent in English. Approximately like unhappy
ŋ fy ngwely, trengi, rhwng thing
ŋ̊ fy nghŵn, yng Nghymru No equivalent in English. Approximately like Shanghai
p pen, copa, map open
r radio, garw, dŵr right but trilled
rhestr, anrheg Trilled r but voiceless; similar to pronouncing it hr
s Saesnes, swsus see
ʃ siarad, siop, brwsh she
t tatws, at stop
tsieini, wats chance
θ thus, athro, peth think
v faint, afal, arf very
w wedyn, ei wraig, gwlân was
χ chwaer, tuchan, bwlch Not present in English; similar to Scottish loch
ʒ Zsazsa Gabor vision
Vowels
Monophthongs
IPA Examples English approximations
NW SW
a sant, pàs sand
mab, sâl father
peth, trên may
ə cymydog, rg about
ɛ perth, mès well
ɪ ɪ tipyn, sgìl it
ɨ punt, gwyn pin (SW)
hir, tîm be
ɨː llun, bûm, rhy, tŷ Russian ты but longer
bro, ôl raw
ɔ bron, glòs off
cwch, dŵr pool
ʊ cwm, mg put
Diphthongs
ai ai tai eye
cau, nesáu pie
aːɨ hael, cae Yael
au llaw around
ɛu llew wayward
ɛi[2] ɛi[2] Seisnig pain
gwneud
əu bywyd RP toe
ɪu ɪu lliw Similar to Cockney English till
ɨu Duw, menyw
ɔi ɔi osgoi boy
ɔɨ coeden soil
ʊɨ ʊi mwy, gŵyl Louie
Other symbols used in transcription of Welsh pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable), for example cymydog [kəˈmədɔg]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ /ɬ/ is usually pronounced as [ɬ] but may also be pronounced as [ç], depending on the speaker and the variety. In this guide, the differences between lateral and palatal allophones are both ignored and both are transcribed with ⟨ɬ⟩.[a]
  2. ^ a b The diphthongs that were historically [əi, əɨ] now begin with a more front vowel [ɛ ~ e] for most speakers. Transcription styles in sources vary but are most often transcribed with [ɛi, ɛɨ] on Wikipedia.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wells, John (26 June 2008). "Welsh ll". John Wells’s phonetic blog. Retrieved 2 March 2014.