Help:IPA conventions for English

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The various English dictionaries use different and sometimes conflicting IPA transcriptions for English. For example, the transcription /i/ may be used for the vowel of sit, of seat, or at the end of city. A dictionary may not even be consistent between one edition and the next. This table correlates the more widely used dictionaries with the conventions of the WP:IPA for English key that is used on Wikipedia.

Most dictionaries transcribe a specific dialect or accent, such as the Received Pronunciation (RP) of the Oxford English Dictionary, or a narrow range of dialects. Wikipedia's WP:IPA for English key, on the other hand, is intended to cover RP, General American, Australian, and other national standards. As such, Wikipedia transcribes /r/ where it is found in rhotic dialects, but also the vowel distinctions found in non-rhotic dialects, without distinct UK and US transcriptions. Specific dialects may also be transcribed—local pronunciations of place names are often useful, for example—but they are normally written in addition to a more universal pronunciation.

When entering IPA in an article, please use the {{IPA}} template so that it is formatted properly on all web browsers. /Slashes/ and [brackets] should be included inside the IPA template, so that they display in the same font as the IPA itself. Also, please use proper stress ˈ and length ː marks (available at the bottom of your edit window) rather than the non-IPA shortcuts of apostrophe ' and colon :. Depending on the reader's font preferences, the latter can be ambiguous.

For a list of those languages other than English which have agreed-upon transcriptions in Wikipedia, see {{IPAkeys}}. For a comparison of the non-IPA transcriptions found in many US dictionaries, see Pronunciation respelling for English.

Alternative pronunciations[edit]

When dictionaries give alternative pronunciations, they may mean that people disagree. For example, some people pronounce bath /ˈbæθ/, with the vowel of bat, while others with the same accent pronounce it /ˈbɑːθ/, with the vowel of bra. This is the kind of difference celebrated in "You like to-MAY-toes; I like to-MAH-toes". On Wikipedia, we would normally need to transcribe both, unless only one is considered correct, as may be the case for personal and place names.

However, often variant transcriptions reflect distinctions between accents, and these we do not need to transcribe, since our IPA key already covers such distinctions. For example, dictionary.com transcribes horse as "/hɔrs/" and hoarse as "/hɔrs, hoʊrs/". The two transcriptions of hoarse are meant to show that some people pronounce it the same as horse; it does not mean that there are two pronunciations of hoarse among those who either do or do not make this distinction. (See horse-hoarse merger.) It would not be possible to have the song lyric "You say hoarse and I say horse", because only those people who say hoarse would be able to sing it. And indeed in the OED there is only one pronunciation for each word: horse (hɔːs) and hoarse (hɔəs). Therefore on Wikipedia we would only have one transcription for each: horse /ˈhɔːrs/, hoarse /ˈhɔərs/. Since the IPA key defines the orthographic conventions of /ɔːr/ and /ɔər/ according to basic English words, readers who do not make the horse-hoarse distinction will see /ɔːr/ and /ɔər/ as being equivalent, much as the spelling pronunciations YOU-clid and EWE-clid for "Euclid" would be seen as equivalent.

Consonants[edit]

Consonants vary little between dictionaries. The ones which do are those in the words:

rich, char /r ~ ɹ ~ (r) ~ (ɹ) ~ zero/;
which, /ʍ ~ hw ~ (h)w ~ w/;
and new, /njuː ~ nuː/.

Wikipedia editors have decided to go with /ˈrɪ/, /ˈɑːr/, /ˈhwɪ/, /njuː/ for these words.

A few dictionaries, such as dictionary.com, use "/y/" for /j/, which is at odds with the official IPA usage, which defines /y/ as close front rounded vowel, and appears as such in transcriptions of French and German, as well as some dialects of English.

Vowels[edit]

The following tables compare the broad IPA pronunciation scheme of some dictionaries to the one used on Wikipedia. The overview is not exhaustive, but major pronouncing dictionaries have been included. Highlight colors:

  • Green highlights pronunciation symbols that are the same as on Wikipedia (disregarding a syllable divider when it does not mean a two-syllable pronunciation, but only that the /r/ belongs to the next syllable, and disregarding different symbolizations of the syllable divider or of /r/);
  • yellow highlights pronunciation symbols that differ only in the use of the length symbol ⟨ː⟩, in parentheses, in superscripts, in non-rhotic dropped /r/, or in inserting an optional sign;
  • red highlights pronunciation symbols that use different signs.

Other conventions:

  • A question mark (?) means that the sound has not been found in the respective dictionary.
  • A blank cell means that the dictionary has not been checked.
  • A slash (/) separates variant pronunciations signs. The order of the variant pronunciation symbols is the same as in the source.
  • Smaller text (like so) highlights variant pronunciations that are not preferred (only some dictionaries make such a distinction).
  • A comma (,) separates different pronunciation depending on the word or depending on the region. The differences are explained in a footnote or by broadly specifying the region.

Checked vowels[edit]

Checked vowels
WP example
word
Jones
1930
Jones
2003
Longman OALD OED2 dict SOED OED3 K&K Mac WL CUBE
(BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (GA) (ES)
/æ/ trap æ æ æ æ æ æ æ æ æ æ a a æ æ æ æ æ a
/ær/ _V carry ær ær er/​ær ær ær ær ær ær ær ær ar ar ɛr ær ær ær ær
/ɛ/ dress e e e e e e e ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ e ɛ
/ɛr/ _V merry er er er er er er er ɛr ɛr ɛr ɛr ɛr ɛr ɛr ɛr ɛr er ɛɹ
/ɪ/ kit i ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ
/ɪr/ _V mirror ir ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪr ɪɹ
/ɒ/ lot ɔ ɒ ɑː ɒ ɑː ɒ ɒ ɒ ɒ ɒ ɒ ɒ ɑ ɑ ɑ ɒ o ɔ
/ɒr/ _V forage ɔr ɒr ɔːr ɒr ɔːr/​ɑː ɒr ɔːr/​ɑːr ɒr ɒr ɔr/​ɒr ɒr ɒr ɔr/​ɑr ɔr/​ɑr/​ɒr ɔr/​ɑr/​ɒr ɒr or,
AEɔr
ɔɹ
/ʊ/ foot u ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ʊ ɵ
/ʊr/ _V courier ur ʊr ʊr ʊr/​ ɝː/​ʊr ʊr ʊr ʊr/​ʊər ʊər ɜr/​ʊər ʊr ʊr/​ʌr/​ʊər ʊr/​ər ᴜr/​ɝ ᴜr/​ɜr/​ʌr/​ɝ ʊr ʊr,
AE: ʊr/​ɜ
ɵɹ
/ʌ/ strut ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ ə ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ ʌ
/ʌr/ _V hurry ʌr ʌr ɝ ʌr ɝː ʌr ɜːr ʌr ʌr ɜr/​ʌr ʌr ʌr ər ɝ ɜr/​ʌr/​ɝ ʌr ʌr,
AEɜ
ʌɹ
WP example
word
Jones
1930
Jones
2003
Longman OALD OED2 dict SOED OED3 K&K Mac WL CUBE
(BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (GA) (ES)

Free vowels[edit]

Free vowels
WP example
word
Jones
1930
Jones
2003
Longman OALD OED2 dict SOED OED3 K&K Mac WL CUBE
(BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (GA) (ES)
/ɑː/ palm ɑː ɑː ɑː ɑː ɑː ɑː ɑː ɑː ɑː ɑ ɑː ɑː ɑ ɑ ɑ a ɑ ɑː
/ɑːr/ _∅ car ɑː* ɑːr ɑːr ɑː ɑːr ɑː(r) ɑːr ɑː(r) ɑː ɑr ɑː ɑː ɑr ɑr ɑː(r a ɑ(r) ɑː
_C start ɑː ɑː ɑːr ɑː ɑːr ɑː ɑːr ɑː ɑː ɑr ɑː ɑː ɑr ɑr ɑː a ɑ,
AE: ɑr
ɑː
_V safari,
starry
ɑːr ɑː.r ɑːr ɑːr ɑːr ɑːr ɑːr ɑːr ɑːr ɑr ɑːr ɑːr ɑr ɑr ɑr ar ɑr ɑːɹ
// price ai ʌɪ ʌɪ ɑɪ ɑj
/aɪər/ _∅ fire aiə* aɪər aɪɚ aɪ‿ə aɪ‿ər aɪə(r) aɪər aɪə(r)[a] aɪə[a] aɪər[a] ʌɪə ʌɪə aɪ(ə)r aɪr aɪə(r aɪə ɑɪə(r) ɑjə
_C fireman aiə aɪə aɪɚ aɪ‿ə aɪ‿ər aɪə aɪər aɪə aɪə aɪər ʌɪə ʌɪə aɪ(ə)r aɪr aɪə aɪə ɑɪə,
AE: ɑɪər
ɑjə
_V irony, firing aiər ə.r, aɪə.r[b] aɪ.r, aɪɚ[c] ər, aɪ‿ər[d] ər, aɪ‿ər[e] aɪr aɪr aɪər aɪr aɪ r ʌɪr, ʌɪər[f] ʌɪr, ʌɪər[g] aɪr, aɪ(ə)r[h] aɪr aɪr aɪər ɑɪər ɑjɹ
/.ər/ _∅ flyer,
higher
aiə* aɪ.ər aɪ.ɚ aɪ‿ə aɪ‿ər aɪə(r) aɪər aɪə(r) aɪə aɪ ər ʌɪə ʌɪə aɪər aɪɚ aɪ•ə(r aɪə ɑɪə(r) ɑjə
// mouth au aᴜ aᴜ ɑʊ aw
/aʊər/ _∅ flour,
hour
auə* aʊər aʊr, aʊr/​aʊɚ[i] aʊ‿ə aʊ‿ər aʊə(r) aʊər aʊə(r)[a] aʊə aʊər/​aʊ ər aʊə aʊə[a] aʊ(ə)r[a] aᴜr aᴜə(r aʊə ɑʊə(r) ɑwə
_C hourglass,
hourly
auə aʊə aʊr/​aʊɚ aʊ‿ə aʊ‿ər aʊə aʊər aʊə aʊə aʊər/​aʊ ər aʊə aʊə aʊər aᴜr aᴜə aʊə ɑwə
_V floury auər aʊə.r ə.r aʊ‿ər aʊ‿ər aʊər aʊər aʊər aʊər[j] aʊər/​aʊ ə r aʊər aʊər aᴜr aᴜər aʊər ɑwɹ
/.ər/ _∅ flower auə* aʊər aʊɚ aʊ‿ə aʊ‿ər aʊə(r) aʊər aʊə(r) aʊə aʊ ər aʊə aʊə/​aʊə[a] aʊər aᴜɚ/​aᴜr aᴜ•ə(r/​aᴜə(r aʊə ɑʊə(r) ɑwə
_C flowerbed auə aʊə aʊɚ aʊ‿ə aʊ‿ər aʊə aʊər aʊə aʊə[k] aʊər aʊə aᴜr aᴜə aʊə ɑʊə,
AE: ɑʊər
ɑwə
_V flowery auər aʊə.r aʊɚ aʊ‿ər aʊ‿ər aʊər aʊər aʊər aʊər aʊ ə r aʊər aʊər aʊ(r)r aᴜr aᴜər aʊər ɑwəɹ
// face ei e e ɛj
/ɛər/ _∅ square ɛə* r er eǝr/​æər eə(r) er ɛə(r) ɛə ɛər ɛː ɛː ɛ(ə)r ɛr/​ær æə(r,
Eɛə(r
ɛə eə,
AE: eər
ɛː
_C bairn ɛə er eǝr er ɛə ɛə ɛər ɛː ɛː ɛr ɛr/​ær/​er æə/​eə,
Eɛə
ɛə eə,
AE: eər
ɛː
_V fairy ɛər eə.r er eər eər er ɛər ɛər ɛər ɛːr ɛːr ɛr ɛr/​ɛːr/​ær ɛr/​ɛːr/​ær,
S: ær/​er
ɛər eər ɛːɹ
/.ər/ _∅ prayer[l],
layer
eiə* eɪ.ər, eɪ.ər/r[m] eɪ.ɚ eɪ ǝ eɪ ǝr eɪə(r)/​eə(r) er eɪə(r) eɪə eɪ ər eɪə eɪə eɪər/​ɛ(ə)r e•ɚ e•ə(r eɪə eɪə(r) ɛjə
// fleece i i i i i i ɪj
/ɪər/ _∅ near iə* ɪər ɪr ɪə ɪǝr ɪə(r) ɪr ɪə(r) ɪə ɪər ɪə ɪə ɪ(ə)r ɪr ɪə(r ɪə ɪə(r) ɪː
_C beard ɪə ɪr ɪə ɪǝr ɪə ɪr ɪə ɪə ɪər ɪə ɪə ɪ(ə)r ɪr ɪə ɪə ɪə,
AEɪər
ɪː
_V eerie iər ɪə.r ɪr ɪər ɪr ɪər ɪr iːr ɪər ɪər ɪər ɪər ɪr ɪr/​ir ɪr/​ir ɪər ɪər ɪːɹ
/.ər/ _∅ seer,
freer
i(ː)ə* iː.ər/ɪər, iː.ər[n] iː.ɚ iː‿ə iːər ɪə(r) ɪr ɪə(r)/​iːə(r), iːə(r)[o] iːə[p] i ər ɪə/​iːə iːə/​ɪə iər/​ɪ(ə)r i•ə(r ɪə ɪə(r) ɪjə
/ɔː/ thought ɔː ɔː ɑː/​ɔː ɔː ɑː ɔː ɔː ɔː ɔː ɔ ɔː ɔː ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ ɔ
/ɔːr/ _∅ war ɔː*/​ɔə* ɔːr ɔːr ɔː ɔːr ɔː(r) ɔːr ɔː(r) ɔː ɔr ɔː ɔː ɔ(ə)r ɔr ɔə(r ɔ ɔ(r)
_C north ɔː ɔː ɔːr ɔː ɔːr ɔː ɔːr ɔː ɔː ɔr ɔː ɔː ɔ(ə)r ɔr ɔə ɔ ɔ,
AE: ɔr
_V aural ɔːr ɔː.r ɔːr ɔːr ɔːr ɔːr ɔːr ɔːr ɔːr ɔr ɔːr ɔːr ɔr ɔr ɔr ɔr ɔr oːɹ
/ɔː.ər/ _∅ drawer[q],
rawer
ɔːə* ɔː.ər ɑː.ɚ/​ɔː.ɚ ɔːr ə ɔː‿ər/​ɑː‿ər ɔːə(r) ɔːər ɔːə(r) ɔːə ɔ ər ɔː(r)ə ɔːə ɔ•ɚ ɔ•ə(r ɔə ɔə(r)
// goat ou əʊ əʊ əʊ əʊ əʊ əʊ əʊ o o əʊ əw
/ɔər/ _∅ ore ɔː*/​ɔə* ɔːr ɔːr ɔː ɔːr/​oʊr ɔː(r) ɔːr ɔə(r) ɔː ɔr/​oʊr ɔː ɔ(ə)r or/​ɔr oə(r ɔ ɔ(r)
_C force ɔː ɔː ɔːr ɔː ɔːr/​oʊr ɔː ɔːr ɔə ɔː ɔr/​oʊr ɔː ɔː ɔ(ə)r or/​ɔr ɔ ɔ,
AE: ɔr
_V oral ɔːr ɔː.r ɔːr ɔːr ɔːr/​oʊr ɔːr ɔːr ɔər ɔːr/​ɒr ɔr/​oʊr ɔːr ɔːr ɔr or/​ɔr or/​ɔr,
S: or
ɒr ɔr,
AE: or
oːɹ
/.ər/ _∅ mower,
lower[r]
ouə* əʊ.ər oʊ.ɚ əʊ ə oʊ ər əʊə(r) oʊər əʊə(r) əʊə oʊ ər əʊə əʊə oʊər o•ə(r o•ə(r oʊə əʊə,
AE: əʊər
əwə
/ɔɪ/ choice ɔi ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ ɔɪ oj
/ɔɪər/ _∅ coir ɔiə* ɔɪər ɔɪr ɔɪ ə ɔɪər ɔɪə(r) ɔɪər ɔɪə(r) ɔɪə[a] ɔɪr ɔɪə ɔɪə ɔɪr ɔɪə(r ɔɪə ojə
/ɔɪ.ər/ _∅ employer ɔiə* ɔɪ.ər ɔɪ.ɚ ɔɪ ə ɔɪ ər ɔɪə(r) ɔɪər ɔɪə(r) ɔɪə ɔɪ ər ɔɪə ɔɪə ɔɪ(j)ər/​ɔjər uə/​ɔjɚ ɔɪ•ə(r/​ɔjə(r ɔɪə ojə
// goose u u u u u u ʉw
/ʊər/ _∅ cure uə*/​oə*/​ɔə*/​ɔː* ʊə ʊr ʊə/​ɔː ʊər ʊə(r) ʊr ʊə(r) ʊə ʊər ʊə ʊə/​ɔː ʊ(ə)r ᴜr ᴜə(r uə/​ʊə ʊə(r) ɵː/​oː[s]
_C procurement,
poorness
uə/​oə/​ɔə/​ɔː ʊə/ɔː, ɔː/ʊə[t] ʊr ɔː/​ʊə ʊr/​ɔːr ʊə, ɔː/ʊə[u] ʊr, ɔːr/ʊr[v] ʊə ʊə ʊər ʊə ʊə/​ɔː ur/​ʊr ᴜr ᴜə/​oə/​ɔə ɔ ʊə/​ɔ,
AEʊər
ɵː, oː[w]
_V fury uər/​oər/​ɔər/​ɔːr ʊə.r ʊr ʊər/​ɔːr ʊr ʊər ʊr ʊər ʊər ʊər ʊər ʊər/ɔːr ur, ʊr[x] ᴜr ᴜr ur ʊər ɵːɹ/​oːɹ
/.ər/ _∅ fewer,
sewer[y]
uə*/​oə* uː.ər, ʊər[z] uː.ɚ uː‿ə uːər uːə(r) uːər uːə(r) uːə u ər uːə uːə uər/​ʊər u•ɚ u•ə(r uə(r) ʉwə
/ɜːr/ _∅ fur əː* ɜːr ɝː ɜː ɝː ɜː(r) ɜːr ɜː(r) ɜː ɜr əː əː ər ɝ ɜ(r/​ɝ ɜ ɜ əː
_C nurse əː ɜː ɝː ɜː ɝː ɜː ɜːr ɜː ɜː ɜr əː əː ər ɝ ɜ/​ɝ ɜ ɜ əː
_V furry əːr ɜː.r ɝː ɜːr ɝː ɜːr ɜːr ɜːr ɜːr ɜr əːr əːr ər ɝ ɜr/​ɝ ɜr ɜr əːɹ
WP example
word
Jones
1930
Jones
2003
Longman OALD OED2 dict SOED OED3 K&K Mac WL CUBE
(BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (GA) (ES)
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h If there are no other syllables, the word bears no stress mark, indicating a mono-syllabic pronunciation.
  2. ^ Jones (BE): /aɪə.r/ in irony, Irish; /aɪə.r/ in firing.
  3. ^ Jones (AE): /aɪ.r/ in irony, Irish; /aɪɚ/ in firing.
  4. ^ Longman (BE): /aɪər/ in irony; /aɪ‿ər/ in firing.
  5. ^ Longman (AE): /aɪər/ in irony; /aɪ‿ər/ in firing.
  6. ^ SOED: /ʌɪr/ in irony; /ʌɪər/ in firing.
  7. ^ OED3 (BE): /ʌɪr/ in irony; /ʌɪər/ in firing.
  8. ^ OED3 (AE): /aɪr/ in irony; /aɪ(ə)r/ in firing.
  9. ^ Jones (AE): /aʊr/ in flour; /aʊr/ or /aʊɚ/ in hour.
  10. ^ dict (BE): In dowry.
  11. ^ dict (BE): In flowerless.
  12. ^ Person who prays.
  13. ^ Jones (BE): /eɪ.ər/ in prayer; /eɪ.ər/ or /eər/ in layer.
  14. ^ Jones (BE): /iː.ər/ or /ɪər/ in seer; /iː.ər/ in freer.
  15. ^ /ɪə(r)/ or /iːə(r)/ in seer; /iːə(r)/ in freer.
  16. ^ dict (BE): In overseer.
  17. ^ Person who draws.
  18. ^ Cause to descend, or comp. of low.
  19. ^ See english speech services | The British English vowel system.
  20. ^ Jones (BE): /ʊə/ or /ɔː/ in procurement; /ɔː/ or /ʊə/ in poorhouse.
  21. ^ OALD (BE): /ʊə/ in procurement; /ɔː/ or /ʊə/ in poorhouse.
  22. ^ OALD (AE): /ʊr/ in procurement; /ɔːr/ or /ʊr/ in poorhouse.
  23. ^ CUBE: /ɵː/ in procurement; /oː/ in poorhouse.
  24. ^ OED3 (AE): /ur/ in fury; /ʊr/ in lurid.
  25. ^ Drain.
  26. ^ Jones (BE): /uː.ər/ in fewer; /ʊər/ in sewer.

Reduced vowels[edit]

Reduced vowels
WP example
word
Jones
1930
Jones
2003
Longman OALD OED2 dict SOED OED3 K&K Mac WL CUBE
(BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (GA) (ES)
/ə/ comma, ago ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə ə
/ən/ kitten n ən ən ən ən n n (ə)n ən n (ə)n ən n n ən
/əm/ rhythm m əm əm əm əm əm əm (ə)m əm əm əm əm əm/​ əm/​ əm m əm
/əl/ middle l əl əl l l (ə)l əl l (ə)l l̩/əl (ə)l l l əl
/ər/ _∅ letter ə* ər ɚ ə ər ə(r) ər ə(r) ə ər ə ə ər ɚ ə(r ə ə(r) ə
_C bittersweet ə ə ɚ ə ər ə ər ə ə ər ə ə ər ɚ ɚ ə ə
_V murderer ər ər ɚ ər ər ər ər ər ər[a] ər (ə)r (ə)r ər ər ər ər ər əɹ
/i/ happy i i i i i i i ɪ ɪ i i i i ɪ ɪ i ɪ ɪj
/u/ situation, actuate u u u u u u u ʊ u ʊ ʊ əw ᴜ/​əw[b] ᴜ/​əw[c] u ʊ ʉw
// roses, enough,
enounce, emission,
mistress
i, i/ə, i/, i(ː)[d] ɪ, ɪ/ə, ə/ɪ, ɪ/iː[e] ɪ, ɪ/ə, ɪ/iː[f] ɪ/ə, ɪ/ə/iː, ɪ/, ə/ɪ[g] ə, ɪ/ə, ɪ/ə/iː, ɪ/, ə/ɪ[h] ɪ, ə, i[i] ɪ, ə, i[j] ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ, iː/ɪ[k] ɪ, ᵻ[l] ɪ, ə[m] ɪ, ə/ɪ, i[n] ɪ, ə/ɪ, i[o] ə, ə/i, i[p] ɪ, ɪ/ə, ə/ɪ[q] ɪ, ə[r]
/, ə/ follow, cooperate,
omission, kilogram
ou, ou, o/ou/ə, o/ə[s] əʊ, əʊ[t] oʊ, oʊ/ə[u] əʊ, əʊ, ə[v] oʊ, oʊ/ə, ə[w] əʊ, ə[x] oʊ, ə[y] əʊ, ə[z] əʊ oʊ, ə[aa] əʊ, ə(ʊ), ə[ab] əʊ, ə(ʊ), ə[ac] oʊ, oʊ/ə, ə[ad] o/ə, o, ə[ae] o/ə, o, ə[af] oʊ, oʊ/ə, ə[ag] əʊ, ə/əʊ, ə[ah] əw, ə[ai]
/ᵿ/ beautiful, curriculum u, u/ə[aj] ə/ʊ, ə/ʊ[ak] ə/ʊ, ə[al] ə/ʊ, ʊ/ə[am] ə/ʊ, ə[an] –, ə[ao] –, ə[ap] ʊ ʊ ə ʊ/(ə), ʊ[aq] (ᵿ), ᵿ[ar] ə ə[as] ə[at] ʊ, ə[au] –, ʊ[av] ə
WP example
word
Jones
1930
Jones
2003
Longman OALD OED2 dict SOED OED3 K&K Mac WL CUBE
(BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (BE) (AE) (GA) (ES)
  1. ^ dict (BE): In murderous.
  2. ^ K&K (GA): /ˌsɪtʃᴜˈeʃən/ or /ˌsɪtʃəˈweʃən/.
  3. ^ K&K (ES): /ˌsɪtʃᴜˈeʃən/ or /ˌsɪtʃəˈweʃən/.
  4. ^ Jones 1930: /i/ in roses, mistress; /i/ or /ə/ in enough; /i/ or /iː/ in emission; /i(ː)/ in enounce.
  5. ^ Jones (BE): /ɪ/ in roses, enounce; /ɪ/ or /ə/ in enough; /ə/ or /ɪ/ in mistress; /ɪ/ or /iː/ in emission.
  6. ^ Jones (AE): /ɪ/ in roses, enounce, mistres; /ɪ/ or /ə/ in enough; /ɪ/ or /iː/ in emission.
  7. ^ Longman (BE): /ɪ/ or /ə/ in roses, enough; /ɪ/ or /ə, iː/ in emission; /ɪ/ or /iː/ in enounce; /ə/ or /ɪ/ in mistress.
  8. ^ Longman (AE): /ə/ in roses; /ɪ/ or /ə/ in enough; /ɪ/ or /ə, iː/ in emission; /ɪ/ or /iː/ in enounce; /ə/ or /ɪ/ in mistress.
  9. ^ OALD (BE): /ɪ/ in enough; /ə/ in mistress; /i/ in emission.
  10. ^ OALD (AE): /ɪ/ in enough; /ə/ in mistress; /i/ in emission.
  11. ^ SOED: /ɪ/ in enough, emission, mistress; /iː/ or /ɪ/ in enounce.
  12. ^ OED3 (BE): /ɪ/ in enough, enounce, emission, react; /ᵻ/ in mistress, design, beautiful.
  13. ^ OED3 (AE): /ɪ/ in enough, enounce, emission; /ə/ in mistress.
  14. ^ K&K (GA): /ɪ/ in roses, emission, mistress; /ǝ/ or /ɪ/ in enough; /i/ in enounce.
  15. ^ K&K (ES): /ɪ/ in roses, emission, mistress; /ǝ/ or /ɪ/ in enough; /i/ in enounce.
  16. ^ Mac: /ə/ in roses, mistress; /ə/ or /i/ in emission, enough; /i/ in enounce.
  17. ^ WL: /ɪ/ in emission; /ɪ/ or /ə/ in enough; /ə/ or /ɪ/ in mistress.
  18. ^ CUBE: /ɪ/ in roses, enough, emission; /ə/ in mistress.
  19. ^ Jones 1930: /ou/ in follow; /ou/ in cooperate; /o/ or /ou/, /ə/ in omission; /o/ or /ə/ in kilogram.
  20. ^ Jones (BE): /əʊ/ in follow, cooperate; ʊ/ in omission, kilogram.
  21. ^ Jones (AE): /oʊ/ in follow, cooperate, omission; /oʊ/ or /ə/ in kilogram.
  22. ^ Longman (BE): /əʊ/ in follow, cooperate; ʊ/ in omission, kilobyte; /ə/ in kilogram.
  23. ^ Longman (AE): /oʊ/ in follow, cooperate; /oʊ/ or /ə/ in omission; /ə/ in kilogram.
  24. ^ OALD (BE): /əʊ/ in follow, cooperate; /ə/ in omission, kilogram.
  25. ^ OALD (AE): /oʊ/ in follow, cooperate; /ə/ in omission, kilogram.
  26. ^ OED2: /əʊ/ in follow, cooperate, omission; /ə/ in kilogram.
  27. ^ dict (AE): /oʊ/ in cooperate, follow, omission; /ə/ in kilogram.
  28. ^ SOED: /əʊ/ in follow, cooperate; /ə(ʊ)/ in omission; /ə/ in kilogram.
  29. ^ OED3 (BE): /əʊ/ in follow, cooperate; /ə(ʊ)/ in omission; /ə/ in kilogram.
  30. ^ OED (AE): /oʊ/ in follow, cooperate; /oʊ/ or /ə/ in omission; /ə/ in kilogram.
  31. ^ K&K (GA): /o/ or /ə/ in follow; /o/ in cooperate, omission; /ə/ in kilogram.
  32. ^ K&K (ES): /o/ or /ə/ in follow; /o/ in cooperate, omission; /ə/ in kilogram.
  33. ^ Mac: /oʊ/ in follow, cooperate; /oʊ/ or /ə/ omission; /ə/ in kilogram.
  34. ^ WL: /əʊ/ in follow, cooperate; /ə/ or /əʊ/ in omission; /ə/ in kilogram.
  35. ^ CUBE: /əw/ in follow, cooperate; /ə/ in omission, kilogram.
  36. ^ Jones 1930: /u/ in beautiful; /u/ or /ə/ in curriculum.
  37. ^ Jones (BE): /ə/ or /ʊ/ in beautiful; /ə/ or /ʊ/ in curriculum.
  38. ^ Jones (AE): /ə/ or /ʊ/ in beautiful; /ə/ in curriculum.
  39. ^ Longman (BE): /ə/ or /ʊ/ in beautiful; /ʊ/ or /ə/ in curriculum.
  40. ^ Longman (AE): /ə/ or /ʊ/ in beautiful; /ǝ/ in curriculum.
  41. ^ OALD (BE): – in beautiful /ˈbjuːtɪfl/; /ə/ in curriculum.
  42. ^ OALD (BE): – in beautiful /ˈbjuːtɪfl/; /ə/ in curriculum.
  43. ^ SOED: /ʊ/ or /(ə)/ in beautiful; /ʊ/ in curriculum.
  44. ^ OED3 (BE): /(ᵿ)/ in beautiful; /ᵿ/ in pendulum.
  45. ^ K&K (GA): /ǝ/ in beautiful, curriculum.
  46. ^ K&K (ES): /ǝ/ in beautiful, curriculum.
  47. ^ Mac: /ʊ/ in beautiful; /ə/ in curriculum.
  48. ^ WL: – in beautiful /ˈbjutəfl/; /ʊ/ in curriculum.

Stress[edit]

One-syllable words may have stress. Most dictionaries leave it out, but that can be confusing when several such words are strung together. For example, in the name Zack de la Rocha, Zack and Rocha have stress, but de la does not: /ˈzæk dɛlə ˈrə/. It would therefore convey an incorrect pronunciation to leave the stress mark off Zack.

OED2 does not indicate stress on monosyllables, but uses the stress mark to disambiguate disyllables: higher (ˈhaɪə(r)) vs. hire (haɪə(r)). On WP, the distinction is made with the aid of the syllabicity mark: /ˈh.ər/, /ˈhaɪər/.

Dictionaries also disagree on secondary stress. Generally, any stressed syllable prior to the last is marked as secondary (/ˌzæk dɛlə ˈrə/), and that convention is followed here. However, several dictionaries also mark full (unreduced) vowels as having secondary stress when they come after the primary stress, even though they are not actually stressed: cerebrate, dict.com /ˈsɛrəˌbreɪt/, OED2 (ˈsɛrɪbreɪt). This practice is avoided on Wikipedia; if you have a word transcribed /ˈCVˌCV/, it should probably be /ˈCVCV/: /ˈsɛrbrt/.

References[edit]

  • Jones, Daniel (1930) [1917]. An English Pronouncing Dictionary (Revised ed.). London, Toronto: J. M. Dent & Sons. 
  • Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917]. Peter Roach, James Hartmann and Jane Setter, eds. English Pronouncing Dictionary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Kenyon, John Samuel; Knott, Thomas Albert (1953). A Pronouncing Dictionary of American English. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam. 
  • The Macquarie Dictionary. McMahons Point, NSW, Australia: Macquary Library. 1982. 
  • Wells, J. C. (2003) [1990]. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. Longman. 
  • Windsor Lewis, J. (1972). A Concise Pronouncing Dictionary of British and American English. London: Oxford University Press.