^ abcdefghSome scholars choose to transcribe the lenis obstruents with the symbols ⟨p, t, k, x, s, ʃ⟩, rather than ⟨b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, ɣ̊, v̥, z̥, ʒ̊⟩. In that case, the fortis obstruents are transcribed ⟨pː, tː, kː, xː, sː, ʃː⟩ or ⟨pp, tt, kk, xx, ss, ʃʃ⟩, rather than ⟨p, t, k, x, s, ʃ⟩. Here, we choose to transcribe the lenis obstruents as ⟨b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, ɣ̊, v̥, z̥, ʒ̊⟩, whereas the fortis obstruents are transcribed ⟨p, t, k, x, s, ʃ⟩. Long fortis obstruents or geminates occur in most of Switzerland except for the extreme Northeast, Wallis, and the Grisons–St. Gall Rhine valley.
^ abcdefghThe dorsal obstruents /kx, x, ɣ̊/ are realized as velar [kx, x, ɣ̊] or uvular [qχ, χ, ʁ̥], depending on the dialect.
^ abcdefThe /r/ phoneme can be pronounced as an alveolar trill [r], an alveolar tap [ɾ], a uvular trill [ʀ], a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ], a voiceless lenis uvular fricative [ʁ̥], or as a uvular approximant [ʁ̞] (for simplicity, we transcribe it the same as a voiced uvular fricative), depending on the dialect. Some dialects (e.g. Zurich German) use all six realizations (Fleischer & Schmid (2006:244)).
^ abcThe aspirated consonants [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] occur in borrowings from Standard German (Fleischer & Schmid (2006:244)). In the dialects of Basel and Chur, an aspirated [kʰ] is also present in native words.
^In Swabian German, /r/ is realized as a uvular approximant [ʁ̞] in syllable onset, but as a pharyngeal approximant [ʕ̞] in other positions (Markus Hiller. "Pharyngeals and "lax" vowel quality"(PDF). Mannheim: Institut für Deutsche Sprache.). For simplicity, we transcribe these sounds as, respectively, [ʁ] and [ʕ].
^In Bernese German, /l/ in the syllable coda is realized as [w].
^In Bernese German, the geminate /lː/ is realized as [wː].
^ abcdefThe open vowels /a, aː/ can be front unrounded [a, aː], central unrounded [ä, äː] (although for simplicity, we transcribe these variants the same as the front [a, aː]), back unrounded [ɑ, ɑː] or back rounded [ɒ, ɒː], depending on the dialect.
^ abcdZurich German has a free variation between back unrounded [ɑ, ɑː] and back rounded [ɒ, ɒː] realizations (Fleischer & Schmid (2006:248)).
^ abcdefThe mid vowels /ɛ, ɛː, œ, œː, ɔ, ɔː/ can be open-mid [ɛ, ɛː, œ, œː, ɔ, ɔː] or true-mid [ɛ̝, ɛ̝ː, œ̝, œ̝ː, ɔ̝, ɔ̝ː] (e.g. in Bernese German (Marti (1985:28)), depending on the dialect. For simplicity, we transcribe both open-mid and true-mid realizations simply as [ɛ, ɛː, œ, œː, ɔ, ɔː].
^The schwa /ə/ occurs only in unstressed syllables.