Help:IPA/Danish

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Danish pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-da}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Danish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of the language.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximations
ð øde [ˈøːðə] bathe
ð̩ skinnede [ˈskenð̩ðə] the book (pronounced quickly)
f fod [ˈfoðˀ] fan
h hat [ˈhæt] hill
j jord [ˈjoɐ̯ˀ] you
k god [ˈkoðˀ] scan
kone [ˈkʰoːnə] car
l lov [ˈlɒʊ̯] lake
solen [ˈsoːˀl̩n] bottle
m mod [ˈmoðˀ] man
København [kʰøpm̩ˈhaʊ̯ˀn] rhythm
n node [ˈnoːðə] noon
vinden [ˈvenˀn̩] sudden
ŋ lang [ˈlaŋˀ] ring
ŋ̍ ryggen [ˈʁœkŋ̍] like ring but longer
p bog [ˈpɔʊ̯ˀ] spare
pol [ˈpʰoːˀl] pack
ʁ rød [ˈʁœðˀ] French parler
s sod [ˈsoðˀ] soon
ɕ Sjælland [ˈɕɛˌlænˀ][1] sheep
t dåb [ˈtɔːˀp] start
tak [ˈtˢak] too
tjener [ˈtɕeːnɐ][1] chin
v våd [ˈvɔðˀ] very
Semivowels
ɐ̯ er [ˈæɐ̯][2] near
ɪ̯ mig [ˈmaɪ̯][2] day
ʊ̯ hav [ˈhaʊ̯] "ocean"[2] now
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a tak [ˈtˢak] art
barn [ˈpaːˀn] father
ɒ og [ˈɒʊ̯], ånd [ˈɒnˀ] off
ɒː i går [i ˈkɒːˀ] dog
æ frisk [ˈfʁæsk], kat [ˈkʰæt] hat
æː gade [ˈkæːðə] bed
e fed [ˈfeðˀ] "fat" somewhat like face
ɛ ven [ˈvɛn]
hel [ˈheːˀl] somewhat like phase
ɛː hæl [ˈhɛːˀl]
i tisse [ˈtˢisə] leaf
si [ˈsiːˀ] leave
o flod [ˈfloðˀ] somewhat like oak
ɔ ost [ˈɔst]
kone [ˈkʰoːnə] somewhat like go
ɔː måle [ˈmɔːlə]
ø nød [ˈnøðˀ] somewhat like nurse
œ bønne [ˈpœnə]
ɶ tør [ˈtˢɶɐ̯ˀ]
øː løber [ˈløːpɐ] "runner" somewhat like fur
œː afgrøde [ˈæʊ̯kʁœːðə]
ɶː røre [ˈʁɶːɐ]
u ud [ˈuðˀ] boot
hule [ˈhuːlə] food
y tyk [ˈtˢyk] somewhat like cute
synlig [ˈsyːnli] somewhat like feud
Stress
ˈ  ˌ husmor [ˈhusˌmoɐ̯]
Stød
ˀ ti [ˈtˢiːˀ] button
Unstressed-only
ɐ løber [ˈløːpɐ] "runner" but
ə hoppe [ˈhɒpə] balance
ɪ kage [ˈkʰæːɪ][3] hit
ʊ mave [ˈmæːʊ][3] foot

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b [tɕ] is phonemically /tˢj/, and [ɕ] is phonemically /sj/.
  2. ^ a b c Diphthongs with an underlying long vowel always have stød, but the ones with an underlying short vowel do not. [eɪ̯, ɛɪ̯, æɪ̯, øɪ̯, æʊ̯, oʊ̯, ɔʊ̯] all have an underlying long vowel and so always have stød. Conversely, [aɪ̯, ɒɪ̯, uɪ̯, aʊ̯, ɒʊ̯] have an underlying short vowel and so never have stød. The other diphthongs (including all diphthongs ending with [ɐ̯]) appear both with and without stød (Grønnum (2005:294)).
  3. ^ a b [ɪ] and [ʊ] are assimilatory variants of [ɪ̯ə] and [ʊ̯ə], respectively.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-203-97876-5
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6