Help:IPA/Hindi and Urdu

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
< Help:IPA  (Redirected from Help:IPA for Hindi and Urdu)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Hindi and Urdu pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. For a guide to adding IPA characters to Wikipedia articles, see {{IPA-hns}}, {{IPA-hi}}, {{IPA-ur}} and Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Pronunciation § Entering IPA characters.

See Hindustani phonology, Devanagari, and Urdu alphabet for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Hindi-Urdu.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
b बीस بیس bīs butter
भालू بھالو bhālū abhor
d दाल دال dāl duck[1]
धूप دھوپ dhūp wide hearted
जान جان jān jug
dʒʱ झड़ना جھڑنا jhaṛnā hedgehog
ɖ डालना ڈالنا ālnā garden[1]

(Rhotic dialects)

ɖʱ ढक्कन ڈھکّن ḍhakkan hard headed

(Rhotic dialects)

f ख़िलाफ़ خلاف k͟hilāf fuss
ɡ गोल گول gōl gut
ɡʱ घर گھر ghar big headed
ɣ[2] बाग़ باغ ġ similar to a French r
ɦ हम ہم ham ahead
हुक्म حکم ukm
j याद یاد yād yuck
k कमज़ोर کمزور kamzōr scab
खाल کھال khāl cab
l लब لب lab leaf
m मगर مگر magar much
n नहीं نہیں nahī̃ not
ɳ[3] चरण چرن cara burn
ŋ रङ्ग رن٘گ rag bang
p पल پل pal spot
फल پھل phal pot
q[2] क़रीब قریب qarīb somewhat like caught
r रस رس ras Trilled R[4]
ज़र्रा ذرّہ zarra
ɾ ज़रा ذرا zarā American butter[4]
ɽ लड़ना لڑنا la garter (Rhotic dialects)
ɽʱ पढ़ाई پڑھائی paṛhāī no English equivalent
s सब سب sab sun
साफ़ صاف āf
साबित ثابت ābit
ʂ[3] नष्ट نشٹ na shrew
ʃ काश کاش ś shoe
t तालाब تالاب tālāb stub[1]
थैला تھیلا thailā tub[1]
चोर چور cōr catch
tʃʰ छोड़ना چھوڑنا chōṛnā choose
ʈ टमाटर ٹماٹر amāar carts[1]
ʈʰ ठंड ٹھنڈ ṭhanḍ trip[1]
ʋ वर्ज़िश ورزش varziś vat[5]
w पकवान پكوان pakvān well[5]
x[2] ख़राब خراب k͟harāb Scottish loch
z काग़ज़ کاغذ kāġaz zoo
ʒ अझ़दहा اژدہا aždahā pleasure
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Hindi Urdu ISO 15919
काम کام kām father
जेब جیب jēb say
ɛ रहना رہنا rêhnā pen[6]
ɛː कैसा کیسا kai fairy
ə कल کَل kal about
ɪ जितना جِتنا jitnā sit
जीतना جیتنا jītnā seat
बोलो بولو bōlō border
ɔː कौन کَون kaun horse
ʊ उन اُن un book
ऊन اُون ūn moon
◌̃ हँस ہن٘س has nasal vowel faun
([ãː, õː], etc.)
मैं مَیں mai
Suprasegmentals
IPA Example Notes
ˈ◌ [ˈbaːɦər] stress
(placed before stressed syllable)
◌ː [ˈʊtːəɾ pɾəˈdeːʃ] doubled consonant
(placed after doubled consonant)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Hindi and Urdu contrast dental [t] and [d] with apical postalveolar [ʈ] and [ɖ] (as well as aspirated variants). Both sets sound like /t/ and /d/ to most English speakers.
  2. ^ a b c Mainly phonemes of Urdu. Some Hindi speakers may replace [ɣ], [q] and [x] with [gʱ], [k] and [kʰ] respectively.
  3. ^ a b Mainly phonemes of Hindi. Urdu speakers usually replace [ɳ] and [ʂ] with [n] and [ʃ] respectively.
  4. ^ a b /ɾ/ can surface as a trill [r] in word-initial and syllable-final positions. Geminate /ɾː/ is always a trill.
  5. ^ a b [w] occurs as an allophone of [ʋ] when / و/ is in an onglide position between an onset consonant and a following vowel while [ʋ], which may phonetically be [v], occurs otherwise.
  6. ^ [ɛ] also occurs as an allophone of /ə/ near an /ɦ/ that is surrounded on both sides by schwas. Usually, the second schwa becomes silent, which results in an [ɛ] preceding an /ɦ/.