Help:IPA/Irish

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Irish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Irish phonology for detailed discussion of the phonology of Irish.

Consonants[1]
Broad Slender English approximations
IPA Example IPA Example
bain, scuab béal, cnáib boot; beautiful
d̪ˠ dorn, nead dearg, cuid do (but dental), though (Ireland); dew
fós, graf, pholl fíon, stuif, phríosún fool; fuel
ɡ gasúr, bog ɟ geata, carraig goose; argue
ɣ dhorn, ghasúr j dhearg, gheata no equivalent; yellow
h[2] Shasana, shean, thaisce, theanga, hata, na héisc hand
k cáis, mac c ceist, mic scan, skew
l̪ˠ[3] labhair, balla l̠ʲ[3] leabhair, goilleadh filth; million
[3] fhlaith, bealach [3] fhleasc, goile, leisciúil, coill pool; leaf
mór, am milis, im moot; mute
n̪ˠ[4] naoi, donna n̠ʲ[4] ní, bainne tenth; inch
[4] dona [4] bainis noon; opinion
ŋ ngasúr ɲ ngeata long; angular
poll, stop príosún, truip span; spew
ɾˠ barr, carr ɾʲ fhréamh, tirim rule (but tapped); real (but tapped)
Sasana, tús, speal ʃ sean, cáis soon; sheet
t̪ˠ taisce, ceart tír, beirt stand (but dental), thorn (Ireland); stew
w[5] bhain, dubh, mhór, léamh, vóta bhéal, sibh, mhilis, nimh, veidhlín wood or have; view
x cháis, taoiseach ç cheist, deich, theann, theocht, thiúilip, thiocfadh, thiubh loch (Scotland); hue (pronounced strongly)
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a mac trap
tá father
ɛ ceist best
mé, Gael pay
ɪ ith, duine kit
mín mean
ɔ olc, deoch off
bó, ceol roll
ʊ dubh, fliuch good
tú too
ə solas, milis sofa
[6] bia idea
[6] fuar truant
əi[6] saghas light
əu[6] leabhar about
Suprasegmentals
IPA Explanation
ˈ primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable);
usually the first syllable except in Munster
ˌ secondary stress (usually found only in compounds)

Comparison to other phonetic transcription schemes[edit]

Materials published elsewhere use somewhat different conventions from those used at Wikipedia. For example, it is a longstanding tradition to leave velarized ("broad") consonants unmarked and mark palatalized ("slender") consonants with the prime, but that is not standard IPA usage.

This section compares the IPA system used at Wikipedia with other systems. Wikipedia's system, which is also is used in some other works, is based on that used by Ailbhe Ní Chasaide in her description of Irish in the Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, ISBN 0-521-63751-1).

IPA Ní Chasaide (1999)[7]
(Gweedore)
Quiggin (1906)[8]
(Glenties)
Breatnach (1947)[9]
(Ring)
Ó Sé (2000)[10]
(Dingle Peninsula)
Mhac an Fhailigh (1968)[11]
(Erris)
Ó Siadhail (1988)[12]
(Cois Fhairrge)
Foclóir Póca (1993)[13]
(Lárchanúint)
a a æ, α a a a æ:, a: a
æ α: a: ɑː a: ɑ: a:
b b b b b b
b′ b′ b′ b′ b′ b′
c c k′ k′ k′ k′ k′ k′
ç ç ç ç x′ ç x′ x′
d̪ˠ d̪ˠ d d d d d d
d̠ʲ d′ d′ d′ d′ d′ d′
e e: e: e: e: e:
ɛ ɛ ɛ, e e e e e e
ə ə ə ə ə, ɪ ə ə ə
əi αi əi ai əi ai ai
əu au αu əu ou əu au au
f f f f f f
f′ f′ f′ f′ f′ f′
ɡ ɡ g g ɡ g g g
ɣ ɣ γ ɣ ɣ ɣ γ
h h h h, h′ h h h h
i i: i: i: i: i:
ɪ ɪ ï, i, y i i i i i
ia iːə i:ə
j j j j ɣ′ j ɣ′ γ′
ɟ ɟ g′ g′ ɡ′ g′ g′ g′
k k k k k k k k
l̪ˠ l̪ˠ L l l L L l
l l
l̠ʲ l̠ʲ L′ l′ l′ L′ L′ l′
l l′ l′ l′
m m m m m m
m′ m′ m′ m′ m′ m′
n̪ˠ n̪ˠ N n n N N n
n n n
n̠ʲ n̠ʲ N′ n′ n′ N′ N′ n′
n′ n′ n′
ɲ ɲ ɲ ŋ′ ŋ′ ŋ′ ŋ′ ŋ′
ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ ŋ
o o:, ɔ: o: o: o: o:
ɔ ʌ ɔ, o̤ o o o o o
p p p p p p
p′ p′ p′ p′ p′ p′
ɾˠ ɾˠ r, R r r r r r
ɾʲ ɾʲ r′ r′ r′ r′ r′ r′
s s s s s s
ʃ ɕ ʃ ʃ ʃ ʃ s′ s′
t̪ˠ t̪ˠ t t t t t t
t̠ʲ t′ t′ t′ t′ t′ t′
u u: u: u: u: u:
ʊ ɤ U u u u u u
ua uːə u:ə
v v′ v′ v′ w′ v′
w w w v v w w v
x x χ x x x x x

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Irish makes contrasts between velarized ("broad") and palatalized ("slender") consonants. Velarized consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ˠ› (note that this is not a capital Y but a Latin letter based on a Greek lowercase gamma, ‹γ›), are pronounced with the back of the tongue raised toward the velum, which happens to the /l/ in English pill in some accents, like RP and General American, but not in Hiberno-English. In Irish orthography, broad consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹a›, ‹o›, ‹u›. "Slender" consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ʲ›, are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the ‹y› sound in yes. In Irish orthography, slender consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹e› and ‹i›.
  2. ^ /h/ is neither broad nor slender.
  3. ^ a b c d Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of L sound. Most dialects have merged /l̪ˠ/ and /lˠ/ as [l̪ˠ], and some have also merged /l̠ʲ/ and /lʲ/ as [lʲ]. Still others have merged /lˠ/ and /lʲ/ as [l].
  4. ^ a b c d Few if any modern dialects of Irish distinguish all four types of N sound. Most dialects have merged /n̪ˠ/ and /nˠ/ as [n̪ˠ], and some have also merged /n̠ʲ/ and /nʲ/ as [nʲ]. Still others have merged /nˠ/ and /nʲ/ as [n]. In parts of Munster, /n̠ʲ/ has merged with /ɲ/ in non-initial position.
  5. ^ Also [] in some positions in some dialects.
  6. ^ a b c d All Irish diphthongs have falling sonority; they could therefore more precisely be transliterated as [iə̯, uə̯, əi̯, əu̯].
  7. ^ Ní Chasaide, Ailbhe (1999). "Irish". Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press. pp. 111–16. ISBN 0-521-63751-1. Retrieved 2009-01-21.
  8. ^ Quiggin, E. C. (1906). A Dialect of Donegal: Being the Speech of Meenawannia in the Parish of Glenties. Cambridge University Press.
  9. ^ Breatnach, Risteard B. (1947). The Irish of Ring, Co. Waterford. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-50-2.
  10. ^ Ó Sé, Diarmuid (2000). Gaeilge Chorca Dhuibhne (in Irish). Dublin: Institiúid Teangeolaíochta Éireann. ISBN 0-946452-97-0.
  11. ^ Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968). The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. ISBN 0-901282-02-2.
  12. ^ Ó Siadhail, Mícheál (1988). Learning Irish: An Introductory Self-tutor. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04224-8.
  13. ^ Foclóir póca: English-Irish/Irish-English dictionary. Dublin: An Gúm. 1993. ISBN 1-85791-047-8.

External links[edit]