Help:IPA for Latin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Classical Latin and Ecclesiastical Latin pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. See Latin spelling and pronunciation for a more thorough look at the sounds of Latin, Latin regional pronunciation for information on the traditional pronunciation systems used in Europe.

Consonants[1]
IPA Latin
alphabet
Examples English approximation
Class. Eccl.
b b bellum bean
d d decem deck
dz z zēlus adze
[2] g gēns giant
f f faciō fan
ɡ g gravis gear
h[3] h habeō her; hour
j[4] i iūs yodel
k c, k caput scar
ch charta car
qu quattuor squash
kᶣ[5] quī
l l locus leave
ɫ[6] l multus all
m m[7] manus man
n n[7] noster next
ŋ longus[8] song
g ignis
ɲ gn ignis similar to onion
p p pax span
ph pharetra pan
r r regiō trilled or tapped r
s[9] s sum send
ʃ[2] sc scindō sharp
t t tabula stone
th thalamus tone; stone
ts[2] t port Botswana
[2] c centum change
w u[4] uerbum west
v v vest
z z zēlus zest
s miserere
Vowels[10]
IPA Latin
alphabet
Examples English approximation
Class. Eccl.
a a anima bra (but shorter)
ā ācer father; bra
ɛ e est met
e ae/æ
oe/œ
e
ē ēlēctus similar to made (American English)
ɪ i incipit[4] mit
i i meet
ī īra need
ɔ o omnis lot (RP and Australian)
o o
ō ōrdō similar to code (American English)
ʊ u urbs[4] put
u u moose
ū ūna food
ʏ y cyclus similar to cute
ȳ cȳma similar to cued
Diphthongs
ae̯ ae aetās sigh
oe̯ oe poena boy
au̯ au aurum cow
eu̯ eu seu eh-oo
ui̯ ui cui oo-ee
Nasal vowels
◌̃ː Vm
Vn
monstrum long nasal vowels[7]
Prosody
IPA Examples
ˈ Gāius
/ˈɡa.i.us/
Stress (placed before the stressed syllable)[11]
. Syllable marker, generally between vowels in hiatus

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Geminate (double) consonants are written with a doubled letter except for /jj/ and /ww/: anus /ˈa.nʊs/, annus /ˈan.nʊs/. In IPA, they may be written as double or be followed by the length sign: /nn/ or /nː/.
  2. ^ a b c d In Classical Latin, ⟨c g t⟩ are always pronounced hard, as /k g t/.
    In Ecclesiastical Latin, ⟨c g sc⟩ are pronounced as soft [tʃ dʒ ʃ] before the front vowels ⟨e i y ae oe⟩ and ⟨ti⟩ before a vowel is pronounced [tsi].
  3. ^ H was generally silent. Sometimes medial ⟨h⟩ is pronounced [k] in Ecclesiastical Latin (mihi); it was pronounced faintly in Classical Latin.
  4. ^ a b c d In Classical Latin, ⟨i u⟩ represent the vowels /ɪ iː and /ʊ uː/, and the consonants /j/, and /w/. Between consonants or when marked with macrons or breves, ⟨i u⟩ are vowels. In some spelling systems, /j w/ are written with the letters ⟨j v⟩. In other cases, consult a dictionary.
    In Ecclesiastical Latin, ⟨i⟩ represents the vowel /i/, ⟨j⟩ represents the consonant /j/, ⟨u⟩ represents the vowel /u/ or /w/, and ⟨v⟩ represents /v/ in Ecclesiastical Latin.
    • In Classical Latin, consonantal ⟨i⟩, between vowels, stands for doubled /jj/: cuius [ˈkujjʊs]. The vowel before the double /jj/ is short, but it is sometimes marked with a macron. When a prefix is added to a word beginning in /j/, the /j/ is usually single: trā-iectum [traː.jɛkˈtũː].
    • In Classical Latin, /w/ is doubled between vowels only in Greek words, such as Euander /ɛwˈwan.dɛr/.
    • In Ecclesiastical Latin, consonantal ⟨v⟩ is pronounced as a fricative /v/ except in the combinations ⟨gu su qu⟩, which are pronounced /gw sw kw/.
  5. ^ The labialized velar /kʷ/ was pronounced as labio-palatalized [kᶣ] before the vowels /ɪ, iː, ɛ, eː/.
  6. ^ /l/ has two allophones in Classical Latin: velarized [ɫ], at the end of a word or before another consonant, and plain [l] in other positions.
  7. ^ a b c In Classical Latin, the combination of a vowel and ⟨m⟩ at the end of a word, or a vowel and ⟨n⟩ before ⟨n⟩ or ⟨f⟩, represents a long nasal vowel.
  8. ^ In both Classical and Ecclesiastical Latin, /n/ is pronounced as [ŋ] before /k, ɡ/.
    The digraph ⟨gn⟩ is pronounced as [ŋn] in Classical Latin but [ɲ] in Ecclesiastical Latin.
  9. ^ In Ecclesiastical Latin, /s/ between vowels is often pronounced [z].
  10. ^ Classical Latin has long and short vowels. If vowel length is marked, long vowels are marked with macrons, ⟨ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, ȳ⟩, and short vowels with breves ⟨ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ, y̆⟩. Ecclesiastical Latin does not distinguish between long and short vowels.
  11. ^ In words of two syllables, the stress is on the first syllable. In words of three or more syllables, the stress is on the penultimate syllable if heavy, on the antepenultimate syllable otherwise. There are some exceptions, most caused by contraction or elision.