^Geminate (double) consonants are written with a doubled letter, except for /jj/ and /ww/: anus/ˈa.nʊs/, annus/ˈan.nʊs/. In IPA, they may be written as double or followed by the length sign: /nn/ or /nː/.
^ abcdIn Classical Latin, ⟨c g t⟩ are always pronounced hard, as /k g t/.
In Ecclesiastical Latin, ⟨c g sc⟩ are pronounced as soft[tʃ dʒ ʃ] before the front vowels⟨e i y ae oe⟩, and ⟨ti⟩ before a vowel is pronounced [tsi].
^Generally silent. Sometimes medial ⟨h⟩ was pronounced [k] in Ecclesiastical Latin (e.g. mihi), whereas it was silent in Classical Latin.
^ abcdIn Classical Latin, ⟨i u⟩ represented the vowels /ɪ iː and /ʊ uː/, and the consonants /j/, and /w/. Between consonants, and when marked with macrons or breves, ⟨i u⟩ are vowels. In some spelling systems, /j w/ are written with the letters ⟨j v⟩. In other cases, consult a dictionary.
In Ecclesiastical Latin, ⟨i⟩ represents the vowel /i/, ⟨j⟩ represents the consonant /j/, ⟨u⟩ represents the vowel /u/ or /w/, and ⟨v⟩ represents /v/ in Ecclesiastical Latin.
In Classical Latin, consonantal ⟨i⟩ between vowels stands for doubled/jj/: cuius [ˈkujjʊs]. The vowel before the double /jj/ is short, though it is sometimes marked with a macron. When a prefix is added to a word beginning in /j/, the /j/ is usually single: trā-iectum[traː.jɛkˈtũː].
In Classical Latin, /w/ was doubled between vowels only in Greek words, such as Euander/ɛwˈwan.dɛr/.
In Ecclesiastical Latin, consonantal ⟨v⟩ is pronounced as a fricative /v/, except in the combinations ⟨gu su qu⟩, which are pronounced /gw sw kw/.
^The labialized velar /kʷ/ was pronounced as labio-palatalized [kᶣ] before the vowels /ɪ, iː, ɛ, eː/, as in qvī[kᶣiː].
^/l/ had two allophones in Classical Latin: velarized [ɫ] at the end of a word or before another consonant, plain [l] in other positions.
^ abcIn Classical Latin, a vowel and ⟨m⟩ at the end of a word, or a vowel and ⟨n⟩ before ⟨n⟩ or ⟨f⟩ represents a long nasal vowel.
^In both Classical and Ecclesiastical Latin, /n/ is pronounced as [ŋ] before /k, ɡ/.
The digraph ⟨gn⟩ is pronounced as [ŋn] in Classical Latin, but [ɲ] in Ecclesiastical Latin.
^In Ecclesiastical Latin, /s/ between vowels is often pronounced as [z].
^Classical Latin had long and short vowels. If vowel length is marked, long vowels are marked with macrons, ⟨ā, ē, ī, ō, ū, ȳ⟩, and short vowels with breves⟨ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ, y̆⟩. Ecclesiastical Latin does not distinguish between long and short vowels.