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English equivalents are only approximate, especially with the vowels, and are intended to give only a general idea of the pronunciation.
- Māori wh is variable, and is often equated to English wh (as pronounced by those without the wine-whine merger). However, contemporary Māori's most common pronunciation is [f]. The voiceless bilabial fricative [ɸ] is a rarer pronunciation, although it is deemed without proof by some to be the sole pre-European contact variant.
- Only used separately in the near-extinct southern dialect of Māori. This southern dialect also has a tendency to reduce the last vowel of a word to a schwa. See Māori language#South Island dialects for further details.
- Stress falls on the first long vowel or on the first diphthong. Otherwise, it is on the first syllable but never earlier than the fourth-last vowel in a word, with both long vowels and diphthongs counting twice.