Sanskrit has many complex phonological processes, called sandhi, which alter sounds because of the presence of neighboring sounds at morpheme or word boundaries. See Sanskrit phonology and Shiksha for a more thorough discussion of the sounds of Sanskrit.
^ abcDevanagari consonant letters such as क have the inherent vowelअa. Thus, क is pronounced ka, even without any vowel sign added. But the IPA and IAST shown here have the consonant k only and do not include the vowel 'a'.
^ abcdefghTo an English-speaker's ear, [ʈ ʈʰ t̪ t̪ʰ] all sound like /t/, and [ɖ ɖʱ d̪ d̪ʱ] all sound like /d/. However, to a Sanskrit speaker's ear, each is a very different sound. [t̪ d̪] are like the Spanish or French [t d], with the tongue touching the teeth. [t̪ʰ d̪ʱ] are how a Sanskrit speaker hears English [θð] (the th and dh sounds). Sanskrit [ʈ ɖ] are pronounced with the tongue further back, touching behind the teeth mid-palate. [ʈʰ ɖʱ] are how a Sanskrit speaker hears English t d, and [ʈ] is how they hear the English t after an s (as in st).
^visarga - a diacritic attached to vowels but realized as a consonant