Help:IPA for Tagalog

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents pronunciation for Tagalog language and a number of related Philippine languages in Wikipedia articles.

See Tagalog phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Tagalog.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
ʔ buang [ˈbuʔaŋ], oo [oʔo] the catch in uh-oh
b bagay, Cavite best
d[1] daw feed
diyan; udyók joy
ɡ gatas gold
h hawak; Ecija heat
j yupî, mayabang, kahoy you, boy
k Bulacan, keso scan
l talinò, tapal lamb
m madre mate
n nasipát, asín need
ŋ ngipin, ingat, lasíng wing
ɲ anyô, kaniya canyon
p[1] piso span
ɾ[2] hindi raw, marami, drayber like better in American and Australian English
s sugat skew
ʃ siya, kasya shine
t[1] tamís stand
ts kutsara cats, sometimes chew
tiyák; kutyà, kutsara chew
w lawak, Davao wait
Lenis consonants[3]
ɰ sige roughly like go
x yakap loch (Scottish English)
Marginal consonants
f[4] Filipino four
ʎ Llanes, silya million
r[2] Rajah, Salvador trilled r
ɹ[2] Walter, rider red
v[4] David vase
z[5] husgado, isda zebra
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a batok far
ɛ[6] heto, Emong set
i sinat, ngipin see
o[7] yero, katotohanan soul
ɔ[8] opo door
u putik; podér soon
Unstressed vowels
ɐ[9] tansô nut
e[10] eh, mayroon, bakit roughly like bit
ɪ[7] iták, depende sit
ʊ[7] ulól foot
Diphthongs
[11] tatay ice
sayaw out (American English)
[12] limot sole
Other symbols used in transcription of Tagalog pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable):
tayô [taˈjoʔ] 'to stand', táyo [ˈtajo] 'we'

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c /d/, /p/ and /t/ are never aspirated unlike in English.
  2. ^ a b c The /r/ phoneme freely varies between [ɾ] [r], [ɽ] and [ɹ], depending on the speaker, usage and intonation. The variable rhotic is used mostly in loanwords. On the other hand, /ɾ/ is a flapped form of /d/ when used om native words and once used the same Baybayin character. The phonemes were then separated when the Spaniards introduced the Latin script.
  3. ^ The /ɾ/ phoneme is historically a lenis form of /d/. However, foreign influences made the /ɾ/ to become a regular phoneme.
  4. ^ a b /f/ and /v/ are usually pronounced by younger speakers who tend to have English-leaning pronunciations. Others would replace for these phonemes with /p/ and /b/, respectively in a fashion similar to fortition.
  5. ^ Like Spanish, /z/ is sometimes an allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
  6. ^ [ɛ] is raised to [e] in normal speech.
  7. ^ a b c [ɪ, ʊ] are allophones of /i, u/ and sometimes /e, o/ (the latter for English and Spanish loanwords) in unstressed initial and medial syllables. See Tagalog phonology#Vowels and semivowels.
  8. ^ An allophone of [o] used in stressed syllables or interjections.
  9. ^ /a/ is relaxed to [ɐ] in unstressed positions and also occasionally in stressed positions (Inang Bayan [iˈnɐŋ ˈbɐjɐn]).
  10. ^ [e, o] are allophones of /i, u/ in final syllables, but they are distinct phonemes in some native words and English and Spanish loanwords.
  11. ^ Sometimes replaced by [eː] in casual speech.
  12. ^ Occurs mostly in Batangas dialect.