Help:IPA for Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Oghuz Turcomanic substratum of Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See the respective coverage of phonology of Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen for more thorough discussion of the sounds of these languages.

IPA Orthography English
tr az tk
b b b b about
c[1][2] k k cute
d d d d ado
d͡ʒ c c j ajar
ð z then
f f f food
ɸ f like food, but with both lips
ɡ[1] g q g ago
ɟ[1] g g g /ɡj/ sequence in argue
ɣ[1] ğ ğ Spanish "weak" g
h h h h[3] home
j y
y ý yet
ʝ[1] ğ
ğ like Dutch soft g
k[1] k k k coal
l l l l late
ɫ[1] l peel ("dark L")
m m m m much
n n n n not
ŋ ň wing
p p p p pan
q[1] k k in the throat
ɾ r r r AmE pretty or Scottish r
ʁ[1] g French r
s s s sue
ʃ ş ş ş shoe
t t t t table
t͡ʃ ç ç ç change
θ s think
v[5] v v vase
β w like vase, but with both lips
x x h[3] Scottish loch
z z z zone
ʒ j j ž leisure
IPA Orthography English
tr az tk
a a a cut
ɑ a father
æ e ə ä cat
e e e e bed
i i i i creek
o o o o somewhat like core
ø ö ö ö somewhat like RP bird; French eu or German ö
u u u u put
ɯ ı ı y somewhat like roses
y ü ü ü somewhat like cue; French u or German ü
IPA Examples
ˈ torbalı /torbaˈlɯ/ 'with bag'
Torbalı /ˈtorbalɯ/ (a place name)[6]
ː â, î, û, ğ[4] âlem /aːlem/ 'world'


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i [c]~[k] (Turkish/Azeri) / [k]~[q] (Turkmen), [ɟ]~[ɡ] (Turkish) / [ɡ]~[ʁ] (Turkmen)[citation needed][contradictory], [ʝ]~[ɣ] (Turkish/Azeri), [l]~[ɫ] only contrast in loan words before <â, û> vs. <a, u>; in native words, [c/k, ɟ/ɡ, l] occur before the front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/, /y/), while [k/q, g/ʁ, ɫ] occur before the back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).
  2. ^ In many eastern Turkish/Azeri dialects, [c] at the end of a word or before a voiceless consonant may become [ç], as in huge.
  3. ^ a b In Turkmen, [h] occurs before front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/ and /y/) while [x] occurs before back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).
  4. ^ a b c In Turkish, between unrounded front vowels (/e/, /i/), ğ is similar to English y. Between unrounded back vowels (/a/, /ɯ/), it is silent. Between rounded vowels (/o/, /ø/, /u/, /y/) it is either silent or may have a very light [β] sound. Word-finally or before a consonant, it lengthens the preceding vowel.
  5. ^ /v/ may be [w], like water, after a vowel or in some loanwords.
  6. ^ In Turkish proper, proper nouns are typically stressed on the 2nd or 3rd last syllable, and other words (excepting certain unstressed suffixes and stressed verb tenses) are stressed on the last syllable.
    Note that in Wikipedia articles, the stress is often wrongly assigned to the final syllable even in proper nouns.