Ukrainian contrasts palatalized "soft" and unpalatalized "hard" consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript ⟨j⟩ [ ʲ ], are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, like in the [j] sound in yes. The "hard" vs. "soft" distinction is phonemic for only nine pairs and may otherwise be ignored.
^[dz, ɣ, v] are allophones of /ts, x, f/ that occur before voiced consonants (Herrity (2000:16)).
^In Ukrainian, geminates are found between vowels: багаття[bɑˈɦɑtʲːɑ]bonfire, подружжя[pɔˈdruʒːɑ]married couple, обличчяface. Geminates also occur at the beginning of a few words: лляний[ˈlʲːɑnɪj]flaxen, forms of the verb литиto pour (ллю [lʲːu], ллєш[lʲːɛʃ] etc.), ссати[ˈsːɑtɪ]to suck and derivatives.