Help:Shortened footnotes

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Shortened footnotes are a hybrid of standard footnotes and parenthetical referencing (Harvard). They use in-text cites that link to a shortened reference in a list and a separate full reference list. The shortened reference may link to the full reference.

Shortened footnotes are used for several reasons: they allow the editor to cite many different pages of the same source without having to copy the entire citation; they avoid the inevitable clutter when citations are inserted into the source text; they bring together all the full citations into a coherent block of markup rather than being strewn throughout the text which allows the list to be alphabetized and makes it easier to edit all the full citations at once.

Please read Help:Footnotes first, as this guide builds upon the methods described there.

Overview[edit]

In this short example, note that an in-text cite such as [1] links to the shortened citation in the Notes list, which in turn links to the long citation in the References list:

Markup Renders as
The brontosaurus is thin at one end.{{sfn|Elk|1972|p=5}} Then it becomes much thicker in the middle.{{sfn|Elk|1972|p=6}}
The Norwegian Blue Parrot will not move if its feet are nailed to the perch.{{sfn|Praline|1969|p=12}} Its metabolic processes are a matter of interest only to historians.{{sfn|Praline|1969|p=16}}
==Notes==
{{reflist|2}}

==References==
{{refbegin}}
* {{cite book |last=Elk |first=Anne |title=[[Anne Elk's Theory on Brontosauruses]] |date=November 16, 1972 |ref=harv}}
* {{cite book |last=Praline |first=Eric |title=[[Dead Parrot sketch]] |date=December 7, 1969 |ref=harv}}
{{refend}} 
The brontosaurus is thin at one end.[1] Then it becomes much thicker in the middle.[2]

The Norwegian Blue Parrot will not move if its feet are nailed to the perch.[3] Its metabolic processes are a matter of interest only to historians.[4]

Notes
  1. ^ Elk 1972, p. 5.
  2. ^ Elk 1972, p. 6.
  3. ^ Praline 1969, p. 12.
  4. ^ Praline 1969, p. 16.
References

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In-text cite[edit]

The in-text cite can be created using standard <ref> tags containing the shortened citation, but this will not link to the long citation:

Markup Renders as
<ref>Elk 1972, p. 5.</ref>

{{reflist}} 
[1]
  1. ^ Elk 1972, p. 5.

You can manually create a link to the long citation:

Markup Renders as
<ref>[[#CITEREFElk1972|Elk 1972]], p.5.</ref>

{{reflist}} 
[1]
  1. ^ Elk 1972, p.5.

Using the {{sfn}} template allows linking with simplified markup and has parameters to include page numbers:

Markup Renders as
{{sfn|Elk|1972|p=5}}

{{reflist}} 
[1]
  1. ^ Elk 1972, p. 5.

The {{sfnp}} template places the date in parenthesis:

Markup Renders as
{{sfnp|Elk|1972|p=5}}

{{reflist}} 
[1]
  1. ^ Elk (1972), p. 5.

The {{sfnm}} template supports the inclusion of multiple sources in a single footnote.

Markup Renders as
{{sfnm |1a1=Elk |1y=1972 |1p=5 |2a1=Praline |2y=1969 |2p=12}}

{{reflist}} 
[1]
  1. ^ Elk 1972, p. 5; Praline 1969, p. 12.

Before {{sfn}} was developed, {{harvnb}} or a similar template was used in <ref> tags:

Markup Renders as
<ref>{{harvnb|Elk|1972|p=5}}</ref>

{{reflist}} 
[1]
  1. ^ Elk 1972, p. 5
This method is still in place in many articles. Templates in this series include {{harvnb}}, {{harv}}, {{harvtxt}}, {{harvcoltxt}}, {{harvcol}} and {{harvcolnb}}: the differences are in the use of parenthesis and colons; see {{Harvard citation documentation}}.

The link is normally created from the authors' last names and the year of publication.

Notes list[edit]

The Notes list is created by using {{reflist}}. When only shortened footnotes are used, then {{reflist|colwidth=20em}} will show the list in an appropriate number of columns. Where shortened and long footnotes are mixed, use {{reflist|colwidth=30em}}.

References list[edit]

Citations in the References list are usually created with a citation template. When linking is desired between the shortened and long citations, the citation template must create an anchor. When using {{citation}}, an anchor is always created. When using one of the Citation Style 1 templates, the anchor must be enabled using the |ref= parameter. By setting |ref=harv the anchor is automatically created from the author last name and the year of publication:

{{cite book |last=Elk |first=Anne |title=[[Anne Elk's Theory on Brontosauruses]] |date=November 16, 1972 |ref=harv}}

In many cases, there is no author, therefore the link and anchor must be created in a different manner. For example:

The Lumberjack Song. December 14, 1969. 

Here the in-text cite can be created as:

{{sfn|Lumberjack Song|1969}}

And the anchor for the citation created with {{sfnref}}:

{{cite book |title=Lumberjack Song |date=December 14, 1969 |ref={{sfnref|Lumberjack Song|1969}} }}

Formatting[edit]

The reference list is formatted by placing the citations in an unordered list using the * markup. Entries may be sorted by the author's last name. The text size may be formatted with {{refbegin}} and {{refend}}. The references list is normally displayed in one column with no indenting.

{{refbegin}}
*{{cite book |last=Elk |first=Anne |title=Anne Elk's Theory on Brontosauruses |date=November 16, 1972 |ref=harv}}
{{refend}}

Date[edit]

The in-text cite should include only the year. The full citation may include the year only or the full date. Most citation templates will extract the year from a full date to form the anchor. If both a date and a year are included, then the date is displayed, but the anchor is formed from the year.

If an author has multiple works in the same year, regardless of whether is a full date or only a year, then duplicate anchors will be generated. To resolve this, suffix the year with an alpha character. For example:

  • {{cite book |last=Elk |first=Anne |title=Anne Elk's Theory on Brontosauruses |date=November 16, 1972 |year=1972a |ref=harv}}
  • {{cite book |last=Elk |first=Anne |title=Anne Elk's Further Theory on Brontosauruses |date=December 20, 1972 |year=1972b |ref=harv}}

No author[edit]

Some sources do not have a single author with a last name, such as a magazine article or a report from a government institution. Options include:

  • For a newspaper or periodical, use the name of the publication and the date, or set the author parameter to "publication name staff".[i]
  • For a publication by an institution, use the name of the institution.
  • Some style guides recommend using the title of the article (title-date).
  • Other style guides recommend using "Anonymous" or "Anon."

Explanatory notes[edit]

Explanatory or content notes are used to add explanations, comments or other additional information relating to the main content. One of the reasons they may be used is to avoid making the text too long or awkward to read. Such notes may include supporting references.

Shortened footnotes mixed with explanatory notes[edit]

This section uses {{sfn}} and {{efn}}.

Markup Renders as
The Sun is pretty big.{{sfn|Miller|2005|page=23|ps=. But Miller points out that the Sun is not as large as some other stars.}} But the Moon{{efn|The Moon goes by other names, such as Selena - see, for example Jones, ''The Solar System'', MacMillan, 2005, p 623.}} is not so big.{{sfn|Brown|2001|page=46|ps=. Historically the Moon was not always considered to be large, see, for example {{harvnb|Peterson|2004|page=623}}}} The Sun is also quite hot.{{sfn|Smith|2005|page=334}}

==Notes==
{{notelist}}

==References==
{{reflist}}
 
The Sun is pretty big.[1] But the Moon[a] is not so big.[2] The Sun is also quite hot.[3]
Notes
  1. ^ The Moon goes by other names, such as Selena - see, for example Jones, The Solar System, MacMillan, 2005, p 623.
  1. ^ Miller 2005, p. 23. But Miller points out that the Sun is not as large as some other stars.
  2. ^ Brown 2001, p. 46. Historically the Moon was not always considered to be large, see, for example Peterson 2004, p. 623
  3. ^ Smith 2005, p. 334.
References
  • Brown (2001), The Moon, Penguin 
  • Miller (2005), The Sun, Oxford 
  • Smith (2005), The Universe, Random House 
  • Peterson (2004), Astronomy, MacMillan 

Shortened footnotes with separate explanatory notes[edit]

This example creates a separate notes section by using <ref> and <ref group=>.

Markup Renders as
The Sun is pretty big.<ref name=Foot01/><ref group=Note name=Note01/> But the Moon<ref group=Note name=Note02/> is not so big.<ref name=Foot02/><ref group=Note name=Note03/> The Sun is also quite hot.<ref name=Foot03/>

==Notes==
{{reflist|group=Note|refs=
<ref name=Note01>But Miller points out that the Sun is not as large as some other stars.</ref>
<ref name=Note02>The Moon goes by other names, such as Selena - see, for example Jones, ''The Solar System'', MacMillan, 2005, p 623.</ref>
<ref name=Note03>Historically the Moon was not always considered to be large, see, for example, Peterson, ''Astronomy'', MacMillan, 2005, p 623.</ref>
}}

==Citations==
{{reflist|refs=
<ref name=Foot01>Miller, p. 23</ref>
<ref name=Foot02>Brown, p. 46</ref>
<ref name=Foot03>Smith, p. 334</ref>
}}

==References==
{{refbegin}}
* Brown, ''The Moon'', Penguin. 2001.
* Miller, ''The Sun'', Oxford, 2005.
* Smith, ''The Universe'', Random House, 2005.
{{refend}} 
The Sun is pretty big.[1][Note 1] But the Moon[Note 2] is not so big.[2][Note 3] The Sun is also quite hot.[3]
Notes
  1. ^ But Miller points out that the Sun is not as large as some other stars.
  2. ^ The Moon goes by other names, such as Selena - see, for example Jones, The Solar System, MacMillan, 2005, p 623.
  3. ^ Historically the Moon was not always considered to be large, see, for example, Peterson, Astronomy, MacMillan, 2005, p 623.
Citations
  1. ^ Miller, p. 23
  2. ^ Brown, p. 46
  3. ^ Smith, p. 334
References
  • Brown, The Moon, Penguin. 2001.
  • Miller, The Sun, Oxford, 2005.
  • Smith, The Universe, Random House, 2005.

Shortened footnotes with separate explanatory notes with references[edit]

This method uses {{sfn}} to create the main footnotes, {{refn}} to create the explanatory notes and {{sfn}} to create footnotes in the explanatory notes.

Markup Renders as
The Sun is pretty big.{{sfn|Miller|2005|p=23}}{{refn|group=lower-alpha|But Miller points out that the Sun is not as large as some other stars.{{sfn|Miller|2005|p=23}}}} But the Moon{{refn|group=lower-alpha|The Moon goes by other names, such as Selena.{{sfn|Brown|2001|p=63}}}} is not so big.{{sfn|Brown|2001|p=46}}{{refn|group=lower-alpha|Historically the Moon was not always considered to be large.}} The Sun is also quite hot.{{sfn|Smith|2005|p=334}}

==Notes==
{{reflist|group=lower-alpha}}

==Citations==
{{reflist}}

==References==
{{refbegin}}
* {{citation |last=Brown |title=The Moon |publisher=Penguin |year=2001}}
* {{citation |last=Miller |title=The Sun |publisher=Oxford |year=2005}}
* {{citation |last=Smith |title=The Universe |publisher=Random House |year=2005}}
{{refend}} 
The Sun is pretty big.[1][a] But the Moon[b] is not so big.[3][c] The Sun is also quite hot.[4]
Notes
  1. ^ But Miller points out that the Sun is not as large as some other stars.[1]
  2. ^ The Moon goes by other names, such as Selena.[2]
  3. ^ Historically the Moon was not always considered to be large.
Citations
  1. ^ a b Miller 2005, p. 23.
  2. ^ Brown 2001, p. 63.
  3. ^ Brown 2001, p. 46.
  4. ^ Smith 2005, p. 334.
References
  • Brown (2001), The Moon, Penguin 
  • Miller (2005), The Sun, Oxford 
  • Smith (2005), The Universe, Random House 

This method uses {{sfn}} to create the main footnotes, {{efn}} to create the explanatory notes, {{sfn}} to create footnotes in the explanatory notes and {{notelist}} to create the notes list.

Markup Renders as
The Sun is pretty big.{{sfn|Miller|2005|p=23}}{{efn|But Miller points out that the Sun is not as large as some other stars.{{sfn|Miller|2005|p=23}}}} But the Moon{{efn|The Moon goes by other names, such as Selena.{{sfn|Brown|2001|p=63}}}} is not so big.{{sfn|Brown|2001|p=46}}{{efn|Historically the Moon was not always considered to be large.}} The Sun is also quite hot.{{sfn|Smith|2005|p=334}}

==Notes==
{{notelist}}

==Citations==
{{reflist}}

==References==
{{refbegin}}
* {{citation |last=Brown |title=The Moon |publisher=Penguin |year=2001}}
* {{citation |last=Miller |title=The Sun |publisher=Oxford |year=2005}}
* {{citation |last=Smith |title=The Universe |publisher=Random House |year=2005}}
{{refend}} 
The Sun is pretty big.[1][a] But the Moon[b] is not so big.[3][c] The Sun is also quite hot.[4]
Notes
  1. ^ But Miller points out that the Sun is not as large as some other stars.[1]
  2. ^ The Moon goes by other names, such as Selena.[2]
  3. ^ Historically the Moon was not always considered to be large.
Citations
  1. ^ a b Miller 2005, p. 23.
  2. ^ Brown 2001, p. 63.
  3. ^ Brown 2001, p. 46.
  4. ^ Smith 2005, p. 334.
References
  • Brown (2001), The Moon, Penguin 
  • Miller (2005), The Sun, Oxford 
  • Smith (2005), The Universe, Random House 

Citations[edit]

Citations may be formatted manually or by use of templates. See the Wikipedia referencing navbox below for various citation styles.

When using Citation Style 1 template, |ref= must be set, usually to |ref=harv. See the Help:Citation Style 1#Anchors for details.

Errors[edit]

Errors involving <ref> tags will be automatically displayed in article, user, template, category, help and file pages. To show error messages on talk and other pages, see Help:Reference display customization.

It is very possible to create an in-text cite that does not link to the full citation and to create full citations that do not have a matching in-text cite. Often the link and anchor may not match for some reason. To catch these errors, use the User:Ucucha/HarvErrors script. When an in-text cite does not have a matching full citation and cannot be readily resolved, then it can be tagged with {{Citation not found}}.

It is also possible to create duplicate ids for the in-text cite, resulting in invalid HTML. See Help:Markup validation for help in validating and resolving issues.

Examples[edit]

These articles exemplify the use of shortened footnotes:

These articles illustrate improperly implemented shortened footnotes:

The article uses {{sfn}} (#10, 11, 12) to point to Rothenburg1976, which is a manually defined citation with no anchor (#9); the footnotes and shortened footnotes are mixed.

sfn template use notes[edit]

{{Sfn}}} and variant templates form the link from the author last name and the year. Up to four authors are supported, for example, {{sfn|Smith|Jones|1993}}. The full citation must create an anchor that matches the {{sfn}} link. Citation Style 1 templates use |ref=harv to create the anchor; Citation Style 2 always creates the anchor. An "anchor" is a landing place for a link to jump to. It is automatically created by/from certain parameters in the full citation template.

If there is a need to cite two works by the same author published in the same year see more than one work in a year for advice on what to do.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Setting the author parameter to something solves the problem of having to set the "ref=" parameter to something other than that which is automatically generated.