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Coordinates: 50°06′N 5°16′W / 50.10°N 5.27°W / 50.10; -5.27
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Coinagehall Street is the main street of Helston. The Guildhall flies a flag
Helston is located in Cornwall
Location within Cornwall
Population11,546 (2011)
OS grid referenceSW664273
Civil parish
  • Helston
Unitary authority
Ceremonial county
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townHELSTON
Postcode districtTR12, TR13
Dialling code01326
PoliceDevon and Cornwall
AmbulanceSouth Western
UK Parliament
List of places
50°06′N 5°16′W / 50.10°N 5.27°W / 50.10; -5.27

Helston (Standard Written Form: Hellys)[1] is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. It is situated at the northern end of the Lizard Peninsula approximately 12 miles (19 km) east of Penzance and 9 miles (14 km) south-west of Falmouth.[2] Helston is the most southerly town on the island of Great Britain and is around 1.5 miles (2.4 km) farther south than Penzance. The population in 2011 was 11,700.[3]

The former stannary and cattle market town is best known for the annual Furry Dance (known locally as the Flora Dance), said to originate from the medieval period. However, the Hal-an-Tow is reputed to be of Celtic origin. The associated song and music, The Floral Dance, is known to have been written in 1911.[4] In 2001, the town celebrated the 800th anniversary of the granting of its Charter.


The borough boundary stone at Nansloe

The name comes from the Cornish 'hen lis' or 'old court' and 'ton' added later to denote a Saxon manor; the Domesday Book refers to Henliston (which survives as the name of a road in the town). Only one edition refers to 'Henlistona'.[5] It was granted its charter by King John on 15 April 1201,[6] for the price of forty marks of silver. It was here that tin ingots were weighed to determine the tin coinage duty due to the Duke of Cornwall when a number of stannary towns were authorised by royal decree. A document of 1396 examined by Charles Henderson shows that the old form "Hellys" was still in use[7] The manor of Helston in Kerrier was one of the seventeen Antiqua maneria of the Duchy of Cornwall.[8] The seal of the borough of Helston was St Michael his wings expanded and standing on a gateway. The two towers domed upon the up-turned dragon, impaling it with his spear and bearing upon his left arm an escutcheon of the arms of England, viz Gu three lions passant guardant in pale Or, with the legend "Sigillum comunitatis helleston burg".[9]

It is a matter of debate as to whether Helston was once a port, albeit no actual records exist.[10] A common belief is that in the 13th century Loe Bar formed a barrier across the mouth of the River Cober cutting the town off from the sea. Geomorphologists believe the bar was most likely formed by rising sea levels, after the last ice age, blocking the river and creating a barrier beach. The beach is formed mostly of flint and the nearest source is found offshore under the drowned terraces of the former river that flowed between England and France, and now under the English Channel.[11]

Daniel Defoe describes Helston (1725) in his tour around Great Britain thus, ″This town is large and populous, and has four spacious streets, a handsome church, and a good trade: this town also sends members to Parliament.' He also mentions that the River Cober makes a tolerable good harbour and several ships are loaded with tin, although over one hundred years before Defoe, Richard Carew (1602) described Loe Bar as "The shingle was relatively porous and fresh water could leave and seawater enter depending, on the relative heights of the pool and sea".[12][13] Defoe's description seems to be the first and possibly the origin of other sources claiming Helston to be a port in the historic period.[14] Loe Pool is referred to in a document of 1302, implying the existence of Loe Bar at this date, if not much earlier, and thus precluding the passage of shipping up the Cober. At the same time it was recorded that the burgesses of Helston exercised jurisdiction over the ships anchored at Gweek, but no mention was made of ships at Helston, and no customs records or other documentation of port traffic relating to Helston survives;[15] thus confirming the fact that Gweek has for centuries been the recognized port of Helston.[16] There is no known archaeological evidence for the existence of a port at Helston* and there is no primary evidence to support Defoe's account.[14] Leland's description of the Loe Pool is thus:

"Lo Poole is a 2 miles in lenght, and betwixt it and the mayn se, is but a barre of sand: and ons in 3 or 4 yeres, what by the wait of the fresch water and rage of the se, it brekith out, and then the fresch and salt water metyng makith a wonderful noise. But sone after, the mouth is barrid again with sande. At other tymes the superfluite of the water of Lo Poole drenith out through the sandy barre into the se. If this barre might be alway kept open, it wold be a goodly haven up to Hailestoun."[17]

However, contributing to the belief of a port at Helston was the discovery of what some people believe to be slipways and mooring rings, during excavations around 1968.[16][18] There was no known shipping from the sea after 1260, but before 1200, in 'the 1182 record of Godric of Helleston paying a fine of ten marks for exporting his corn out of England from Helston without a licence.' This could be considered the most significant piece of documentary evidence signifying Helston's former port days, though it does not prove the case.[19][20] At the time of Domesday Book, Gweek had no inhabitants whilst Helston was the largest settlement in the west of Cornwall, with 113 households.[21] In 1837 a plan was drawn up to open Loe Pool to shipping using a pier to counteract siltation, but it was never carried out.[22]

The site of Helston Castle is now a bowling green near the Grylls Monument, which has been there since 1760. The castle was built in 1280 as a simple stone structure for Edmund, Earl of Cornwall. By 1478 it had fallen into disuse and ruin.[23]

A free chapel of ease perhaps also built for Edmund, Earl of Cornwall before 1283 was dissolved by the chantries act 1547 and turned into Helston's coinage hall.[24] This was later demolished by public subscription raised by Helston's sitting M.P., Charles Abbot, following his return in the 1796 general election.[25]


The Guildhall, built in 1839. It contains the council chamber, mayor's offices, and a function room, and is the starting point for the dances on Flora Day.

The Helston parliamentary constituency was created in 1298 and elected two members to the Unreformed House of Commons; the Reform Act 1832 reduced the number elected to one. Helston is now part of the St Ives constituency, which covers the western part of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. The current member is the Conservative, Derek Thomas. Prior to Brexit in 2020, Helston was within the South West England European Parliamentary Constituency. At local government level, the town is administered by Cornwall Council and Helston Town Council. Helston is split into three Cornwall Council wards: Helston South, Helston North, and Porthleven and Helston West. Helston Town Council is based at the Helston Guildhall which was completed in 1839.[26]


Helston is situated along the banks of the River Cober in Cornwall. Downstream is Cornwall's largest natural lake Loe Pool, formed when a shingle bar blocked the mouth of the river by rising sea levels forming a barrier beach. To the south is the Lizard Peninsula, an area important for its complex geology and wildlife habitats.[27]


Helston is on the A394 road. To the west, the A394 leads to Penzance; to the north-east it leads to Penryn where it joins the A39, which leads south to Falmouth and north-east to Truro. The B3297 runs north from Helston to Redruth.[2][28] The nearest railway station is Redruth on the Cornish main line, although the Helston branch line railway served the town until closure in the early 1960s. The branch left the ex-GWR main line at Gwinear Road station near Hayle, and ran 8.5 miles (13.7 km) south to terminate at Helston railway station. The Helston Railway Preservation Company is undertaking the restoration of part of the line. Bus services now link Helston to the rail network; First Kernow provides the (U4) bus service from Penzance station to Falmouth via Helston. The (34) bus service links Redruth station with Lizard via Helston and is operated by Go Cornwall Bus. The nearest airport is Newquay Cornwall Airport which is approximately 35 miles (56 km) north-east of Helston. This is the main commercial airport for Cornwall with regular scheduled services to many parts of the UK.


Helston has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb), similar to the rest of the British Isles. It is one of the mildest places in the country and frosts are rarely severe. The nearest Met Office weather station is RNAS Culdrose, approximately 1 mile south-east of the town centre. Temperature extremes in the area since 1980 have ranged from −10.9 °C (12.4 °F) during January 1987,[29] and up to 29.6 °C (85.3 °F) in August 1990.[30] The coldest temperature in recent years was −6.2 °C (20.8 °F) in December 2009.[31] Snow occurs in median every second year, almost in 2 – 3 days in line or one alone, most often in January or February.[32]

Climate data for RNAS Culdrose,[a] elevation: 78 m (256 ft), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1960–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.9
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 9.4
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.9
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 4.4
Record low °C (°F) −10.9
Average precipitation mm (inches) 106.7
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 16.4 13.3 12.2 11.4 9.1 9.2 9.8 10.9 10.6 14.6 16.8 17.0 151.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 59.5 84.1 113.2 177.7 205.9 203.3 195.9 185.1 150.4 108.5 74.1 53.3 1,610.9
Source 1: Met Office[33]
Source 2: Starlings Roost Weather[34][35]

Culture and community[edit]

Flora Day: the Furry Dance and Hal-an-Tow ceremonies[edit]

Flora Day occurs annually, on 8 May (except when the date falls on a Sunday or Monday — Monday being Market Day — when it is the preceding Saturday) Helston hosts the Furry Dance.

The Hal an Tow celebration

There are four dances throughout the day, the first starting at 7 a.m. (historically for domestic servants), the ladies in summer frocks and the gentlemen in white shirts and dark grey trousers with neckties bearing the town crest, loaned for the day. The second dance at 9.50 is when children from the town's schools dance dressed all in white, the individual schools denoted by the head dresses that the girls wear. The premier dance follows at Midday when the "gentry of the County" dance, the ladies in long ball-type gowns topped off with picture hats and the gentlemen wearing full morning dress. The final dance of the day begins at 5 p.m., a dance historically for the tradespeople of the town. Participants in this dance are the only dancers to dance around the town twice, having already danced in the 7 a.m. dance.

Only Helston-born people can dance in the lead set in each dance and the first male and female will only lead that dance once in their lifetime. Flora Day is administered by Stewards who elect stewards therefore continuing this wonderful occasion without outside interference. Helston Town Band play the famous tune and accompany all four dances on a long route around the town. The dwellings and shops of the town are festooned with bluebells, campions and whatever green foliage is available. Specific dances (not including the children's dance) go into and out of various private buildings, shops and grounds. The origins of the dance are not known but appear to represent a pre-Christian celebration of the passing of winter.

On the same day the "Hal an Tow", another celebration of the coming of spring, is performed upon the streets of the town.[36] This is a morning ritual that is traditionally more boisterous than the dance. It is a moving street theatre that appears to have its origins in the Middle Ages, and the themes tend to be more English than uniquely Cornish. The theatre consists of the Hal-an-tow song accompanied by dancing and acting out the content of the verses. The costumes and the song itself represent many different historical and mythical themes. It has evolved over time, the most recent verse (about St Piran) only appeared within the 21st century.[citation needed]

Hellys International Guitar Festival[edit]

In 2017, a new festival was established by the lutenist Ben Salfield and his promoters, Kernow Concerts,[37] bringing international concert artists from the world of guitar music from as far away as Los Angeles[38] to perform concerts and give free lessons in Helston each August. The festival is initially based in The Old Cattle Market, next to Coronation Park and Boating Lake, and features some of the best artists in their field.[39]

Helston Town Band[edit]

Helston Town Band has a rich history, which can be traced back to the turn of the 20th century. Indeed, there are members of the current band whose family connections extend back four generations. Inevitably, during the War the band reformed with new members and in 1946 numbers were consolidated when most of its pre-war members returned from active service. The band enjoyed steady progress at this time, which culminated in 1951 when it reached the National Third Section Finals at Belle Vue, Manchester.

In 1967, the band came under the direction of Edward Ashton, with whom the band gained much success and a reputation for consistently playing music to a high standard. Edward led the band to numerous successes in both local and regional contests, until his retirement in November 2002 after an incredible 35 years.

Following his retirement, the band appointed John Hitchens as their new Musical Director . The band has continued to flourish under John's direction: in 2003, they were crowned Cornish First Section Champions, and in 2004 they gained promotion to the National First Section.

In 2006, the band were crowned West of England First Section Champions, and received an invitation to compete in the National First Section Finals in Harrogate, where they achieved a commendable seventh place. The band went on to achieve third place at the West of England First Section Championships in 2007, and were delighted to become West of England First Section Champions once again in 2008.

These excellent results meant that Helston Town Band earned promotion and competed in the Championship Section in 2009 for the first time in its history.

Churches and places of interest[edit]

St Michael's churchyard
The birthplace of Bob Fitzsimmons

There are several churches including St Michael's Church, a humble church with stained-glass windows and a tall bell tower which can be heard throughout the town. In the surrounding graveyard there is a monument to Henry Trengrouse, the inventor of the rocket fired safety line — a device for aiding in the saving of lives in a shipwreck.

Helston is also the birthplace of Bob "Ruby Robert" Fitzsimmons, the first triple world boxing champion. The house where he was born and lived in Helston is still standing and is indicated by a plaque above the door.

The Helston Museum, founded in 1949, occupies the building originally designed as the town's Market House in 1837, with two separate buildings—one for butter and eggs, the other the meat market. The exhibits are mostly concerned with Helston's agricultural and market town history. The museum also hosts art exhibitions and has a shop selling all things Cornish.

There are three Cornish crosses in Helston: one in Cross Street and two in Mr. Baddeley's garden (Cross Street). One of the latter crosses was removed from Tresprison, Wendron, and other from near Trelill Holy Well, Wendron. The cross from Trelill has ornament on the front and back of the shaft.[40]

The Grylls Monument, at the end of Coinagehall Street was built by public subscription in 1834 to thank Humphry Millet Grylls, a local banker, who stopped the closure of Wheal Vor, a local mine that at the time employed over a thousand people.

Helston also hosts The Flambards Experience, formerly the Helston Aero Park, which is a theme park with a selection of rides together with a few remaining aviation exhibits. Nearby Wendron is home to the Poldark Mine theme park, where visitors can go underground into the old workings. The Helston Railway, which aims to restore the Helston Branch, is also nearby.


Helston Community College has the most pupils in Cornwall. Its South Site building was formerly (1939-1972) Helston Grammar School. Formerly located at Penrose Road (which became the secondary modern school), the grammar school had a long history dating back to the 16th century. Derwent Coleridge was a headmaster there, and his pupils included Charles Kingsley,[41] John Duke Coleridge, Richard Edmonds, Thomas Rowe Edmonds, John Rogers, Henry Trengrouse and James Trevenen.[42][43] Another former headmaster was the botanist and author Charles Alexander Johns (1843–47), who was also a former pupil.[44]

The School Houses in grammar school days were Coleridge, Kingsley and Tennyson. Alfred Tennyson's local connection was through his writing.

Helston has three primary schools. These are Parc Eglos, St. Michael's and Nansloe. The catchment area of Helston Community College includes these and many other schools from the surrounding villages. There is also a primary school at Trannack. All four primary schools dance on Flora Day, as does Helston Community College.


Local TV coverage is provided by BBC South West and ITV West Country. Television signals are received from the Redruth and local relay transmitters. [45][46]

Local radio stations are BBC Radio Cornwall, Heart West, Greatest Hits Radio South West, Pirate FM and Coast FM, a community based station. [47]

The town is served by the local newspapers, The West Briton and Falmouth Packet. [48]

Sport and recreation[edit]

Bowling club and the Grylls Monument

In 1885 the annual custom of the beating the Helston Borough Bounds was undertaken, followed by a scrimmage for 15 dozen buns and the throwing of the hurling ball.[49] In the same year Helston Cycling Club had their headquarters at the Globe Hotel and had a weekly evening cycle to places such as Redruth and the Lizard.[50]

The town has an active sporting scene, with Helston RFC, Helston Athletic FC and Helston Cricket Club all having prominent roles within the community. The current rugby club was formed in 1965 but rugby was played on Helston Downs as early as 1883 when Helston beat Lanner by 6 tries and 3 touch-downs in self-defence to nil.[51] The Swallows Gymnastics Club is also extremely popular within the area. Helston holds an annual road race An Resek Helys (The Race for Helston)[52] and an annual triathlon.[53]

The town has a King George V Playing Field, the home ground for the rugby club and finish line of An Resek Helys. Below the town is Coronation Park which has a man-made lake as its centrepiece where rowing boats can be hired in summer. A skate park is nearby in the same complex. The Penrose Amenity Area lies across the road from Coronation Park. National Trust-owned, this area, once part of the Penrose Estate, offers walks alongside the River Cober which leads down to Loe Pool and the sea beyond Loe Bar. Just off the main path is a bird-watching hide offering views over Loe Pool.

Cornish wrestling[edit]

Helston has been a centre for Cornish wrestling for centuries.[54][55][56] Over this time there were a large number of sites where tournaments were held. These include: the Helston Downs,[57] Gweal Folds farm,[58] the Lower Green[59] which became Coronation Park[60] where tournaments continued to be held, Field near While Hill, Meneage Street,[61] Bullock Lane,[55] Coronation Park,[60] Monument Road,[62] Field at the rear of the Angel Hotel[63] which became the Sunken Gardens[64][65] where tournaments continued to be held, Grange Road[66] and Penrose Amenity Area.[67]


Helston is twinned with the following towns:[68]

Local newspapers[edit]

Helston is served by two local paid-for newspapers, The West Briton and The Packet: both offer a selection of news and local pictures. The area is also covered by a free delivered newspaper, the Helston Advertiser established in April 2000.[69]


  1. ^ Weather station is located 9.0 miles (14.5 km) from the Nottingham city centre.


  1. ^ "List of Place-names agreed by the MAGA Signage Panel" (PDF). Cornish Language Partnership. May 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  2. ^ a b Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 203 Land's End ISBN 978-0-319-23148-7
  3. ^ "2011 population for Helston". Archived from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
  4. ^ The music and lyric were written in 1911 by Kate Emily Barkley ("Katie") Moss (1881-1947) who was a professional violinist, pianist and concert singer.
  5. ^ "Genuki: Helston, Cornwall". Archived from the original on 1 April 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  6. ^ "Helston's Royal Charters | HELSTON HISTORY". 28 March 2013. Retrieved 11 September 2023.
  7. ^ Henderson, C. (1933) "Helston", in his: Essays in Cornish History. Oxford; Clarendon Press; pp. 67-74
  8. ^ Hatcher, John (1970) Rural Economy and Society in the Duchy of Cornwall 1300-1500. Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-08550-0
  9. ^ Pascoe, W. H. (1979). A Cornish Armory. Padstow, Cornwall: Lodenek Press. p. 133. ISBN 0-902899-76-7.
  10. ^ "Helston, Cornwall". cornwall-calling.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  11. ^ May, V. J. "Loe Bar". In May, V. J. and Hansom, J. D. (2003) Coastal Geomorphology of Great Britain, (Geological Conservation Review Series, No. 28), 754 pp. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
  12. ^ Defoe, Daniel (1991). A Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04980-3.
  13. ^ Martin, Benjamin (c. 1770). The Natural History of Cornwall and Devonshire. (part of the author's The Natural History of England, or, A description of each particular county)
  14. ^ a b Russell, Stephanie. "Historic characterisation for regeneration – Helston" (PDF). Cornwall & Scilly Urban Survey. Cornwall Archaeological Unit. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
  15. ^ The History of Helston, p. 392.
  16. ^ a b Carroll, Patrick. "HELSTONIA – The Blue Anchor Demythologising my local". Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  17. ^ Polsue, Joseph (1872). A Complete Parochial History of the County of Cornwall: Compiled from the Best Authorities & Corrected and Improved from Actual Survey ; Illustrated. Boscawen Street, Truro: William Lake. pp. Supplementary Papers: 75.
  18. ^ Kittridge, Alan, 1989 Cornwall's Maritime Heritage. Twelveheads Press
  19. ^ Nicholls, P. "Could Helston have historically been a port settlement? An analysis of available evidence and LiDAR remote sensing data cross referenced with a survey of the lower Cober/Loe valley" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  20. ^ Toy, Spencer (1936). A History of Helston. London: Oxford University Press, Humphrey Milford. pp. 17, 18.
  21. ^ "Place: Helston". Open Domesday. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  22. ^ Matthews, G. G. (29 March 2013). "Helston Harbour". Helston History. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  23. ^ Bates, R and Scott, B: 1999, Helston Town Trail Leaflet
  24. ^ Henderson, Charles Gordon (1935). Essays in Cornish History. By Ch. Henderson. Ed. by A.L. Rowse and M.I. Henderson.
  25. ^ Toy, H. spencer (1936). The History of Helston, by H. Spencer Toy. O.u.p.
  26. ^ Historic England. "Guildhall (1196492)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 October 2021.
  27. ^ Jean Lawman (1994) A Natural History of the Lizard Peninsula. Pool: Institute of Cornish Studies.
  28. ^ Ordnance Survey: Landranger map sheet 204 Truro & Falmouth ISBN 978-0-319-23149-4
  29. ^ "1987 temperature". TuTiempo. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014.
  30. ^ "1990 temperature". TuTiempo. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014.
  31. ^ "2009 temperature". TuTiempo. Archived from the original on 6 June 2014.
  32. ^ "Local Weather Forecast, News and Conditions | Weather Underground". Archived from the original on 5 May 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  33. ^ "Sutton Bonington 1991–2020 averages". Station, District and regional averages 1981–2010. Met Office. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  34. ^ "Monthly Extreme Maximum Temperature". Starlings Roost Weather. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  35. ^ "Monthly Extreme Minimum Temperature". Starlings Roost Weather. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  36. ^ Green, Marian (1980) A Harvest of Festivals. Ch. 2: St Michael and a dancing serpent. London: Longman; pp. 14-30
  37. ^ "Hellys International Guitar Festival 2018 – Helston, Cornwall". Hellys International Guitar Festival 2018 – Helston, Cornwall. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 5 May 2018.
  38. ^ BMG Magazine, Summer 2017
  39. ^ Packet Newspaper, 22 March 2017
  40. ^ Langdon, A. G. (1896) Old Cornish Crosses. Truro: Joseph Pollard; pp. 261, 104 & 331-32
  41. ^ Rapple, Brendan A. "Brief Biography of Charles Kingsley, 1819-1875". Boston College Libraries. Archived from the original on 23 March 2008. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
  42. ^ Rowse, A. L. (1976). "Chapter 2 "Oxford"". Matthew Arnold: Poet and Prophet. London: Thames and Hudson. pp. 25. ISBN 0-500-01163-X.
  43. ^ The further alumni are cited as Helston students in ODNB articles on them.
  44. ^ Dare, Deirdre, and Melissa Hardie. A Passion for Nature: 19th-Century Naturalism in the Circle of Charles Alexander Johns. Penzance, Cornwall: Patten Press & Jamieson Library, 2008.
  45. ^ "Full Freeview on the Redruth (Cornwall, England) transmitter". UK Free TV. 1 May 2004. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  46. ^ "Freeview Light on the Helston (Cornwall, England) transmitter". UK Free TV. 1 May 2004. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  47. ^ "Coast FM". Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  48. ^ "West Briton". British Papers. 7 December 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2023.
  49. ^ "Helston borough bounds". The Cornishman. No. 357. 21 May 1885. p. 7.
  50. ^ "Cycling Club Fixtures". The Cornishman. No. 357. 21 May 1885. p. 4.
  51. ^ "Football". The Cornishman. No. 241. 22 February 1883. p. 5.
  52. ^ "Cornwall Road Running". Archived from the original on 27 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  53. ^ "Helston Triathlon". 17 April 2011. Archived from the original on 11 April 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  54. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 28 August 1802.
  55. ^ a b The Cornishman, 2 May 1889, p5.
  56. ^ West Briton, 16 September 2015.
  57. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 5 July 1806.
  58. ^ Royal Cornwall Gazette, 14 July 1810.
  59. ^ Barton RM, Life in Cornwall in the mid 19th Century, D Bradford Barton Ltd (Truro) 1971, p200.
  60. ^ a b West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 16 September 1926.
  61. ^ Cornishman, 10 July 1884.
  62. ^ Cornish Guardian, 15 September 1949.
  63. ^ Cornish Guardian, 2 September 1954.
  64. ^ The West Briton, 9 September 2010.
  65. ^ West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 12 September 1996.
  66. ^ West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser, 15 September 1960.
  67. ^ The West Briton, 8 Sep 2011.
  68. ^ Information supplied by Helston Twinning Association
  69. ^ "Helston Advertiser". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.

Further reading[edit]

  • Henderson, Charles G. (1935). "Helston [and] The rules of a cobblers' guild at Helston in 1517". Essays in Cornish History. Oxford University Press. pp. 67–79.
  • Jenkin, Reg; Carter, Derek (2012). The Book of Helston: ancient borough and market town'. Wellington: Halsgrove.
  • Toy, Spencer (1936). The History of Helston. London: Oxford University Press

External links[edit]