Hematidrosis

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Red tinted sweat (or 'blood sweat') caused by hematohidrosis.

Hematidrosis (also called haematidrosis, hematohidrosis, hemidrosis or blood sweat. From Greek haima/haimatos αἷμα, αἵματος, blood; hidrōs ἱδρώς sweat) is a very rare condition in which a human sweats blood.[1]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Blood usually oozes from the forehead, nails, umbilicus, and other skin surfaces. In addition, oozing from mucocutaneous surfaces causing nosebleeds, blood stained tears, and vicarious menstruation are common.[2] The episodes may be proceeded by intense headache and abdominal pain and are usually self-limiting. In some conditions, the secreted fluid is more dilute and appears to be blood-tinged, while others may have darker bright red secretions resembling blood.[3]

Investigations[edit]

Investigation such as platelets count, platelet aggregation test, coagulation profile and skin biopsy reveal no abnormalities and direct light microscopy of fluid demonstrates presence of normal red blood cells. Investigations also failed to show any vasculitis or skin appendages (i.e. sweat glands, sebaceous glands and hair follicles) abnormalities.[3][4]

A 2015 case study investigated haematidrosis with a patient who has epilepsy.[5]

Treatment[edit]

The condition is very rare but there are reports in medical literature of successful treatment with beta blockers (propranolol 10 mg)[6][7] with significant reduction in the frequency of spontaneous blood oozing. The successful use of beta blockers supports the theory that the condition is induced by stress and anxiety yet this etiology is not established yet as the high prevalence of stress and anxiety in the modern era did not change the incidence of this extremely rare disease, suggesting that other co-abnormality also play a key role in this disease.[4] Atropine sulfate transdermal patches have also been used successfully.[3]

Causes[edit]

It has been suggested that acute fear and extreme stress can cause haematidrosis.[8]

In religion[edit]

The New Testament indicates that Jesus underwent hematidrosis before the Crucifixion of Jesus, during the Agony in the Garden (Luke 22:44).[9][10] These claims are plausible, given that the modern day dermatological research notes the presence of hematidrosis in people awaiting execution.[10] It has also been proposed as a possible explanation for claims associated with stigmata.[11][12]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tshifularo, M. (2014). "Blood otorrhea: blood stained sweaty ear discharges: hematohidrosis; four case series (2001-2013).". American Journal of Otolaryngology 35 (2): 271–3. doi:10.1016/j.amjoto.2013.09.006. PMID 24315735. 
  2. ^ Holoubek, J. E.; Holoubek, A. B. (1996). "Blood, sweat and fear. "A classification of hematidrosis"". Journal of medicine 27 (3–4): 115–33. PMID 8982961. 
  3. ^ a b c Biswas, S.; Surana, T.; De, A.; Nag, F. (2013). "A curious case of sweating blood". Indian Journal of Dermatology 58 (6): 478–80. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.119964. PMC 3827523. PMID 24249903. 
  4. ^ a b Mora, E; Lucas, J (2013). "Hematidrosis: Blood sweat". Blood 121 (9): 1493. doi:10.1182/blood-2012-09-450031. PMID 23570065. 
  5. ^ Shen, H., Wang, Z., Wu, T., Wang, J.; Ren, C.; Chen, H., Yu, Z., Don, W. (2015). Haematidrosis associated with epilepsy in a girl successfully Treated with oxcarbazepine: Case report. Journal of International Medical 43 (2): 263-269.
  6. ^ Wang, Z.; Yu, Z.; Su, J.; Cao, L.; Zhao, X.; Bai, X.; Zhan, S.; Wu, T.; Jin, L.; Zhou, P.; Ruan, C. (2010). "A Case of Hematidrosis Successfully Treated with Propranolol". American Journal of Clinical Dermatology 11 (6): 440–3. doi:10.2165/11531690-000000000-00000. PMID 20666570. 
  7. ^ Khalid, S. R.; Maqbool, S; Raza, N; Mukhtar, T; Ikram, A; Qureshi, S (2013). "Ghost spell or hematohidrosis". Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP 23 (4): 293–4. PMID 23552544. 
  8. ^ Holoubek JE, Holoubek AB. (1996). Blood, Sweat and Fear: A Classification of Hematidrosis. Journal of Medicine 27: 115-133.
  9. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Gillis, James Martin (1907). "Agony of Christ". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  10. ^ a b Jerajani, H. R.; Jaju, Bhagyashri; Phiske, M. M.; Lade, Nitin (2009). "Hematohidrosis – A rare clinical phenomenon". Indian Journal of Dermatology (Wolters Kluwer) 54 (3): 290–292. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.55645. PMC 2810702. PMID 20161867. 
  11. ^ Manonukul J, Wisuthsarewong W, Chantorn R, Vongirad A, Omeapinyan P. (2008). Hematidrosis: A pathologic process or stigmata. A case report with comprehensive histopathologic and immunoperoxidase studies. Am J Dermatopathol 30: 135-139.
  12. ^ Kluger, N; Cribier, B. (2013). Stigmata: From Saint-Francis of Assisi to Idiopathic Haematidrosis. Ann Dermatol Venereol 140: 771-777.