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Hemigrapsus nudus 3043.JPG
Hemigrapsus nudus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Infraorder: Brachyura
Family: Varunidae
Genus: Hemigrapsus
Dana, 1851
Type species
Hemigrapsus crassimanus
Dana, 1851

Hemigrapsus is a genus of varunid crabs comprising thirteen species found almost exclusively in the Pacific Ocean.


The natural range of the genus is restricted to the Pacific Ocean, except for Hemigrapsus affinis which lives along the Atlantic coasts of South America, from Cape São Roque (Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil) to the San Matías Gulf, (Patagonia, Argentina). H. estellinensis is almost certainly extinct, but was endemic to a hypersaline spring in the Texas Panhandle, 500 miles (800 km) from the sea.[1] Populations of Hemigrapsus sanguineus have been introduced from the species' native range in East Asia to several places, and now range from Portland, Maine to North Carolina, and along the English Channel;[2][3][4] H. takanoi has been introduced to western Europe, and now extends from northern Spain to the English Channel.[5]


Fifteen species are currently recognised:[6]


  1. ^ Gordon C. Creel (1964). "Hemigrapsus estellinensis: a new grapsoid crab from North Texas". The Southwestern Naturalist. 8 (4): 236–241. JSTOR 3669636. 
  2. ^ John J. McDermott (1991). "A breeding population of the Western Pacific crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Crustacea: Decapoda: Grapsidae) established on the Atlantic coast of North America" (PDF). Biological Bulletin. 181 (1): 195–198. doi:10.2307/1542503. 
  3. ^ Jessica D. Sharon. "Japanese shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus)". Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant College Program. Archived from the original on March 3, 2011. Retrieved October 21, 2010. 
  4. ^ Dragoş Micu, Victor Niţă & Valentina Todorova (2010). "First record of the Japanese shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus (de Haan, 1835) (Brachyura: Grapsoidea: Varunidae) from the Black Sea" (PDF). Aquatic Invasions. 5 (Supplement 1): S1–S4. doi:10.3391/ai.2010.5.S1.001. 
  5. ^ Akira Asakura & Seiichi Watanabe (2005). "Hemigrapsus takanoi, new species, a sibling species of the common Japanese intertidal crab H. penicillatus (Decapoda: Brachyura: Grapsoidea)" (PDF). Journal of Crustacean Biology. 25 (2): 279–292. doi:10.1651/C-2514. 
  6. ^ Peter K. L. Ng, Danièle Guinot & Peter J. F. Davie (2008). "Systema Brachyurorum: Part I. An annotated checklist of extant Brachyuran crabs of the world" (PDF). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 17: 1–286. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-06. 

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