Hemiphractus

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Hemiphractus
Hemiphractus fasciatus02.jpg
Hemiphractus fasciatus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Hemiphractidae
Genus: Hemiphractus
Wagler, 1828
Diversity
6 species (see text)
Synonyms

Cerathyla Jiménez de la Espada, 1870

Hemiphractus (known as horned (tree)frogs) is a genus of frogs in the family Hemiphractidae.[1][2] They are found in northern South America and Panama.[1]

Description[edit]

Hemiphractus are robust-bodied frogs.[3] The genus is characterized by a fleshy proboscis on terminus of snout and fleshy tubercles on eyelids, skull that is highly casqued with prominent lateral occipital processes projecting backwards, and fang-like maxillary and premaxillary teeth.[4]

Female frogs carry eggs openly on their back; the eggs adhere to the mother's back with gelatinous material. Eggs hatch as fully developed froglets.[5]

Ecology and behaviour[edit]

Hemiphractus are believed to be specialized predators of other frogs, and hence confined to areas with high density of frogs.[6] They can threat their predators by opening their mouth, exposing the colourful tongue.[7]

Species[edit]

There are six recognized species:[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2015). "Hemiphractus Wagler, 1828". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 7 August 2015. 
  2. ^ "Hemiphractidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015. 
  3. ^ Vitt, Laurie J.; Caldwell, Janalee P. (2014). Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles (4th ed.). Academic Press. p. 497. 
  4. ^ Sheil, C. A.; Mendelson III, J. R. (2001). "A new species of Hemiphractus (Anura: Hylidae: Hemiphractinae), and a redescription of H. johnsoni.". Herpetologica. 57: 189–202. JSTOR 3893183. 
  5. ^ Vitt and Caldwell (2014), p. 166, 497
  6. ^ IUCN. "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>". Archived from the original on 27 June 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  7. ^ Vitt and Caldwell (2014), p. 322