Hemispherical resonator gyroscope
The Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope (HRG), also called wine-glass gyroscope or mushroom gyro, is a compact, low noise, high performance angular rate or rotation sensor. An HRG is made using a thin solid-state hemispherical shell, anchored by a thick stem. This shell is driven to a flexural resonance by electrostatic forces generated by electrodes which are deposited directly onto separate fused-quartz structures that surround the shell. The gyroscopic effect is obtained from the inertial property of the flexural standing waves. Although the HRG is a mechanical system, it has no moving parts, and can be very compact.
The HRG makes use of a small thin solid-state hemispherical shell, anchored by a thick stem. This shell is driven to a flexural resonance by dedicated electrostatic forces generated by electrodes which are deposited directly onto separate fused quartz structures that surround the shell.
For a single-piece design (i.e., the hemispherical shell and stem form a monolithic part) made from high-purity fused quartz, it is possible to reach a Q-factor of over 30-50 million in vacuum, thus the corresponding random walks are extremely low. The Q-factor is limited by the coating (extremely thin film of gold or platinum) and by fixture losses. Such resonators have to be fine-tuned by ion-beam micro-erosion of the glass or by laser ablation in order to be perfectly dynamically balanced. When coated, tuned and assembled within the housing, the Q-factor remains over 10 million.
In application to the HRG shell, Coriolis forces cause a precession of vibration patterns around the axis of rotation. It causes a slow precession of a standing wave around this axis, with an angular rate that differs from input one. This is the wave inertia effect, discovered in 1890 by British scientist George Hartley Bryan (1864–1928). Therefore, when subject to rotation around the shell symmetry axis, the standing wave does not rotate exactly with the shell, but the difference between both rotations is nevertheless perfectly proportional to the input rotation. The device is then able to sense rotation.
The electronics which sense the standing waves are also able to drive them. Therefore, the gyros can operate in either a “whole angle mode” that sense the standing waves' position or a “force rebalance mode” that holds the standing wave in a fixed orientation with respect to the gyro.
Originally used in space applications (Attitude and Orbit Control Systems for spacecraft), HRG is now used in advanced Inertial navigation system, in Attitude and Heading Reference System and gyrocompass.
The HRG is extremely reliable because of its very simple hardware (two or three pieces of machined fused quartz). It has no moving parts; its core is made of a monolithic part which includes the hemispherical shell and its stem. They demonstrated outstanding reliability since their initial use in 1996 on the NEAR_Shoemaker spacecraft.
The HRG is highly accurate and is not sensitive to external environmental perturbations. The resonating shell weighs only a few grams and it is perfectly balanced which makes it insensitive to vibrations, accelerations and shocks.
The HRG exhibits superior SWAP (Size, Weight & Power) characteristics compared to other gyroscope technologies.
The HRG generates neither acoustic nor radiated noise because the resonating shell is perfectly balanced and operates under vacuum.
The material of the resonator, the fused quartz, is naturally radiation hard in any space environment. This confers intrinsic immunity to deleterious space radiation effects to the HRG resonator.
Thanks to the extremely high Q-factor of the resonating shell, the HRG has an ultra-low low angular random walk and extremely low power dissipation.
The HRG, unlike optical gyros (FOG and RLG), has inertial memory: if the power is lost for a short period of time (typically few seconds), the sensitive element integrates the input motion (angular rate) so that when the power returns, the HRG signals the angle turned in the interval of power loss.
The HRG is a very high-tech device which requires sophisticated manufacturing tools and process. The control electronics required to sense and drive the standing waves, is somewhat sophisticated. This high level of sophistication strongly limits the dissemination of this technology and only few companies were able to develop it. Up to now, only three companies are manufacturing HRG in series: Northrop Grumman Corporation, Safran and Raytheon Anschutz.
Classical HRG is relatively expensive due to the cost of the precision ground and polished hollow quartz hemispheres. This manufacturing cost restricts its use to high added value applications such as satellite and spacecraft. Nevertheless manufacturing costs can be dramatically reduced by design changes and engineering controls. Rather than depositing electrodes on an internal hemisphere that must perfectly match the shape of the outer resonating hemisphere, electrodes are deposited on a flat plate that matches the equatorial plan of the resonating hemisphere. In such configuration, HRG becomes very cost effective and is well suitable for high grade but cost sensitive applications.
- Space — Inside the Spacecraft Bus in the James Webb Space Telescope and other satellites and spacecraft
- Land — Target locators, land navigation systems  and artillery pointing
- Air — HRG are poised to be used in Commercial Air Transport navigation systems 
- Ring laser gyroscope
- HRG gyrocompass
- Fiber optic gyroscope
- Vibrating structure gyroscope
- Quantum gyroscope
- Inertial measurement unit
- "Resonator, Hemispherical Resonator GYRO".
- Sarapuloff S.A., Rhee H.-N., and Park S.-J. Avoidance of Internal Resonances in Hemispherical Resonator Assembly from Fused Quartz Connected by Indium Solder //Proceedings of the 23rd KSNVE (Korean Society for Noise & Vibration Engineering) Annual Spring Conference. Yeosu-city, 24–26 April 2013. – P.835-841.
- Bryan G.H. On the Beats in the Vibrations of a Revolving Cylinder or Bell //Proc. of Cambridge Phil. Soc. 1890, Nov. 24. Vol.VII. Pt.III. - P.101-111.
- "Housing, Hemispherical Resonator Gyroscope (HRG)".
- "Northrop Grumman's Highly Reliable Resonator Gyro Achieves 25 Million Operating Hours in Space". Northrop Grumman Newsroom. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
- "Northrop Grumman's Hemispherical Resonator Gyro Achieves 50 Million Operating Hours in Space". Northrop Grumman Newsroom. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
- The Hemispherical Resonator Gyro: From Wineglass to the Planets, David M. Rozelle
- Hemispherical Resonator Gyro
- "Northrop Grumman's Hemispherical Resonator Gyro Achieves Record 30 Million Hours of Continuous Operation". 19 February 2015.
- Delhaye, Fabrice (2018). "HRG by SAFRAN: The game-changing technology". 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems (INERTIAL). pp. 1–4. doi:10.1109/ISISS.2018.8358163. ISBN 978-1-5386-0895-1.
- "Gyro Evaluation for the Mission to Jupiter" (PDF).
- "SIRU - Scalable Inertial Reference Unit for Space". Northrop Grumman. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
- "HRG Crystal". 22 March 2018.
- "Standard 30 MF - Maintenance-Free Gyro Compass".
- "SIRU - Scalable Inertial Reference Unit for Space". Northrop Grumman. Retrieved 2018-12-06.
- "HRG by Sagem from laboratory to mass production". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2019-06-13.
- "FAQ for Scientists Webb Telescope/NASA".
- "REGYS 20 | ESA's ARTES Programmes".
- "Safran's SpaceNaute navigation system chosen for new Ariane 6 launch vehicle". 30 November 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-27. Retrieved 2014-02-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Sagem to Highlight Wide Range of Warfare Products at Defexpo 2014".
- "At Euronaval Sagem introduced BlueNaute, a new-generation shipborne inertial navigation system".
- "EURONAVAL 2018: New family of naval inertial navigation systems by Safran".
- "Safran Vectronix AG | Optronic equipment & laser rangefinder technology". Safran Vectronix. Retrieved 2020-02-26.
- Sagem wins new order for SIGMA 20 navigators on MBDA surface-to-air weapon systems
- Sagem to Supply Seeker and Firing-Posts Optronics for MBDA’s New MMP Medium-Range Missile
- Tran, Pierre (2018-06-08). "Eurosatory: This navigation system by Safran doesn't need GPS". Defense News. Retrieved 2018-06-12.
- "Safran reveals Geonyx inertial navigation system for assured PNT | Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
- Sagem unveil SkyNaute inertial navigation system
- "Sagem carries out first flight test of HRG-based navigation system for commercial aircraft". 21 November 2014.
- Lynch D.D. HRG Development at Delco, Litton, and Northrop Grumman //Proceedings of Anniversary Workshop on Solid-State Gyroscopy (19–21 May 2008. Yalta, Ukraine). - Kyiv-Kharkiv. ATS of Ukraine. 2009.
- L.Rosellini, JM Caron - REGYS 20: A promising HRG-based IMU for space application - 7th International ESA Conference on Guidance, Navigation & Control Systems. 2–5 June 2008, Tralee, County Kerry, Ireland
- D. Roberfroid, Y. Folope, G. Remillieux (Sagem Défense Sécurité, Paris, FRANCE) - HRG and Inertial Navigation - Inertial Sensors and Systems – Symposium Gyro Technology 2012
- A Carre, L Rosellini, O Prat (Sagem Défense Sécurité, Paris,France) HRG and North Finding -17th Saint Petersburg International Conference on Integrated Navigation Systems 31 May – 2 June 2010, Russia
- Alain Jeanroy; Gilles Grosset; Jean-Claude Goudon; Fabrice Delhaye - HRG by Sagem from laboratory to mass production - 2016 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems
- Alexandre Lenoble, Thomas Rouilleault - SWAP-oriented IMUs for multiple applications- Inertial Sensors and Systems (ISS), 2016 DGON - Karlsruhe, Germany
- Fabrice Delhaye - HRG by Safran - The game-changing technology - 2018 IEEE International Symposium on Inertial Sensors and Systems - Lake Como, Italy
- Fabrice Delhaye; Jean-Philippe Girault - SpaceNaute®, HRG technological breakthrough for advanced space launcher inertial reference system - 25th Saint Petersburg International Conference on Integrated Navigation Systems 31 May – 29 May 2018, Russia
- B.Deleaux, Y.Lenoir - The world smallest, most accurate and reliable pure inertial navigator: ONYX™ - Inertial Sensors and Systems 2018, Braunschweig - 12 September 2018, Germany
- Y. Foloppe, Y.Lenoir - HRG CrystalTM DUAL CORE: Rebooting the INS revolution - Inertial Sensors and Systems 2019, Braunschweig - 10 September 2019, Germany
- F. Delhaye, Ch. De Leprevier - SkyNaute by Safran – How the HRG technological breakthrough benefits to a disruptive IRS (Inertial Reference System) for commercial aircraft - Inertial Sensors and Systems 2019, Braunschweig - 11 September 2019, Germany