Hemphill County, Texas

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Hemphill County
Hemphill County Courthouse in Canadian
Hemphill County Courthouse in Canadian
Map of Texas highlighting Hemphill County
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 35°50′N 100°17′W / 35.83°N 100.28°W / 35.83; -100.28
Country United States
State Texas
Founded1887
Named forJohn Hemphill
SeatCanadian
Largest cityCanadian
Area
 • Total912 sq mi (2,360 km2)
 • Land906 sq mi (2,350 km2)
 • Water5.9 sq mi (15 km2)  0.6%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total3,382
 • Density3.7/sq mi (1.4/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district13th
Websitewww.co.hemphill.tx.us
Military monument at Hemphill County Courthouse
The former Woman's Christian Temperance Union building in Canadian is being converted into a new Hemphill County Library.
Canadian Record newspaper office serves Hemphill County.

Hemphill County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2020 census, its population was 3,382.[1] The county seat and only incorporated community in the county is the city of Canadian.[2] The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1887.[3] It is named for John Hemphill, a judge and Confederate congressman.[4] Hemphill County is one of six[5] prohibition, or entirely dry, counties in the state of Texas.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

For the 200 years leading up to 1875, nomadic Indian tribes representing the Apache, Comanche, Kiowa, and others roamed the Panhandle following the huge bison (buffalo) herds. In search for an alternate route to California through Santa Fe, New Mexico, Josiah Gregg (1840), and Captain Randolph B. Marcy (1845) surveyed trails that crossed Hemphill County, following the south bank of the Canadian River.

The 1874–75 Red River War was an effort by the United States Army to force the Indians of the Southern Plains to move to Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma. Two major battles took place in what would become Hemphill County: the Battle of Lyman's Wagon Train and the Battle of Buffalo Wallow.

On April 12, 1879, Wheeler County became the first organized county in the Panhandle, with 14 other unorganized counties attached to it, one of which was Hemphill County. Hemphill County was organized in July 1887.


Influence of Santa Fe Railroad[edit]

In 1886, the Southern Kansas Railway Company, a Santa Fe subsidiary, began to build a rail line into the Panhandle of Texas. The tracks entered Hemphill County during 1887 and further encouraged settlement in the area, creating three town sites: Mendota, Canadian, and Glazier.

In 1907, Canadian was designated a division point by the Santa Fe, a factor which brought diversification to the previously ranching economy of the area. The Santa Fe influence remained very strong until the mid-1950s, when the railway moved its employees to Amarillo.

Meanwhile, Hemphill County was roughly the midway point of two smaller lines, the Clinton and Oklahoma Western Railroad Company and the Clinton-Oklahoma-Western Railroad Company of Texas.[6]

Oil production[edit]

During the 1970s, the county grew due to a rapid expansion of oil production. Though oil was discovered in the county in 1955, production remained relatively small because the technology had not yet progressed to efficiently capture the very deep reserves known to exist. By 1974, oil production had reached 999,000 barrels (158,800 m3) and more than 1,891,000 bbl (300,600 m3) in 1978. In 2000, about 505,000 bbl (80,300 m3) of oil and more than 8 billion cubic feet of natural gas were produced in the county, but the future looked very bright.

Abraham Companies are based in the Moody Building, a former hotel in Canadian.

Geography[edit]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 912 sq mi (2,360 km2), of which 906 sq mi (2,350 km2) are land and 5.9 sq mi (15 km2) (0.6%) are covered by water.[7]

Major highways[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

National protected area[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1880149
1890519248.3%
190081557.0%
19103,170289.0%
19204,28035.0%
19304,6378.3%
19404,170−10.1%
19504,123−1.1%
19603,185−22.8%
19703,084−3.2%
19805,30472.0%
19903,720−29.9%
20003,351−9.9%
20103,80713.6%
20203,382−11.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]
1850–2010[9] 2010[10] 2020[11]
Hemphill County, Texas - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010[10] Pop 2020[11] % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 2,656 2,090 69.77% 61.80%
Black or African American alone (NH) 4 4 0.11% 0.12%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 12 18 0.32% 0.53%
Asian alone (NH) 18 10 0.47% 0.30%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 3 0 0.08% 0.00%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 0 4 0.00% 0.12%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 28 119 0.74% 3.52%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 1,086 1,137 28.53% 33.62%
Total 3,807 3,382 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

As of the census[12] of 2000, 3,351 people, 1,280 households, and 948 families resided in the county. The population density was four people per square mile (1/km2). The 1,548 housing units averaged two per square mile (1/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 87.65% White, 1.55% Black or African American, 0.72% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 8.48% from other races, and 1.31% from two or more races. About 15.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Of the 1,280 households, 32.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.20% were married couples living together, 5.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.90% were not families. About 24.40% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.00% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.98.

In the county, the population was distributed as 28.00% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 25.40% from 45 to 64, and 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $35,456, and for a family was $42,036. Males had a median income of $31,154 versus $19,423 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,929. About 10.90% of families and 12.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.70% of those under age 18 and 12.80% of those age 65 or over.

Communities[edit]

Politics[edit]

United States presidential election results for Hemphill County, Texas[13]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 1,486 86.40% 206 11.98% 28 1.63%
2016 1,462 85.80% 181 10.62% 61 3.58%
2012 1,298 86.02% 192 12.72% 19 1.26%
2008 1,345 85.67% 216 13.76% 9 0.57%
2004 1,380 83.99% 257 15.64% 6 0.37%
2000 1,203 81.61% 251 17.03% 20 1.36%
1996 986 68.57% 344 23.92% 108 7.51%
1992 989 58.18% 479 28.18% 232 13.65%
1988 1,170 68.62% 527 30.91% 8 0.47%
1984 1,650 79.83% 413 19.98% 4 0.19%
1980 1,152 64.72% 592 33.26% 36 2.02%
1976 858 54.37% 707 44.80% 13 0.82%
1972 942 81.42% 214 18.50% 1 0.09%
1968 699 53.77% 400 30.77% 201 15.46%
1964 563 46.41% 649 53.50% 1 0.08%
1960 847 71.72% 333 28.20% 1 0.08%
1956 620 60.67% 401 39.24% 1 0.10%
1952 892 60.19% 590 39.81% 0 0.00%
1948 201 17.06% 930 78.95% 47 3.99%
1944 274 23.97% 792 69.29% 77 6.74%
1940 170 16.38% 868 83.62% 0 0.00%
1936 121 10.67% 1,008 88.89% 5 0.44%
1932 133 12.64% 918 87.26% 1 0.10%
1928 489 60.67% 317 39.33% 0 0.00%
1924 167 25.97% 405 62.99% 71 11.04%
1920 253 37.32% 417 61.50% 8 1.18%
1916 141 20.89% 496 73.48% 38 5.63%
1912 61 11.60% 312 59.32% 153 29.09%


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Hemphill County, Texas". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 30, 2022.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Texas: Individual County Chronologies". Texas Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2008. Retrieved May 24, 2015.
  4. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. pp. 154.
  5. ^ "TABC Local Option Elections". Retrieved July 29, 2018.
  6. ^ "Clinton-Oklahoma-Western Railroad". tshaonline.org. Retrieved April 27, 2013.
  7. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
  8. ^ "Decennial Census of Population and Housing by Decades". US Census Bureau.
  9. ^ "Texas Almanac: Population History of Counties from 1850–2010" (PDF). Texas Almanac. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
  10. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Hemphill County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  11. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Hemphill County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  12. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  13. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved July 25, 2018.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 35°50′N 100°17′W / 35.83°N 100.28°W / 35.83; -100.28