Hendra virus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Hendra henipavirus
Colored transmission electron micrograph of a "Hendra henipavirus" virion (ca. 300 nm length)
Colored transmission electron micrograph of a Hendra henipavirus virion (ca. 300 nm length)
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Negarnaviricota
Class: Monjiviricetes
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Paramyxoviridae
Genus: Henipavirus
Species:
Hendra henipavirus

Hendra virus, scientific name Hendra henipavirus, is a bat-borne virus that is associated with a highly fatal infection in horses and humans. Numerous disease outbreaks in Australia among horses have been caused by Hendra virus. The Hendra virus belongs to the genus Henipavirus, which also contains the Nipah virus, which has also caused disease outbreaks.

Pathology[edit]

Flying foxes experimentally infected with the Hendra virus develop a viraemia and shed the virus in their urine, faeces and saliva for approximately one week. There is no other indication of an illness in them.[1] Symptoms of Hendra virus infection of humans may be respiratory, including hemorrhage and edema of the lungs, or in some cases viral meningitis. In horses, infection usually causes one or more of pulmonary oedema, congestion and neurological signs.[2]

Ephrin B2 has been identified as the main receptor for the henipaviruses.[3]

Transmission[edit]

Flying foxes have been identified as the reservoir host of Hendra virus. A seroprevalence of 47% is found in the flying foxes, suggesting an endemic infection of the bat population throughout Australia.[4] Horses become infected with Hendra after exposure to bodily fluid from an infected flying fox. This often happens in the form of urine, feces, or masticated fruit covered in the flying fox's saliva when horses are allowed to graze below roosting sites. The seven human cases have all been infected only after contact with sick horses. As a result, veterinarians are particularly at risk for contracting the disease.

Prevention, detection and treatment[edit]

Three main approaches are currently followed to reduce the risk to humans.[5]

  • Vaccine for horses.
In November 2012, a vaccine became available for horses. The vaccine is to be used in horses only, since, according to CSIRO veterinary pathologist Dr Deborah Middleton, breaking the transmission cycle from flying foxes to horses prevents it from passing to humans, as well as, "a vaccine for people would take many more years."[6][7]
The vaccine is a subunit vaccine that neutralises Hendra virus and is composed of a soluble version of the G surface antigen on Hendra virus and has been successful in ferret models.[8][9][10]
By December 2014, about 300 000 doses had been administered to more than 100 000 horses. About 3 in 1000 had reported incidents; the majority being localised swelling at the injection site. There had been no reported deaths.[11]
In August 2015, the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) registered the vaccine. In its statement the Australian government agency released all its data on reported side effects.[12] In January 2016, APVMA approved its use in pregnant mares.[13]
  • Stall-side test to assist in diagnosing the disease in horses rapidly.
Although the research on the Hendra virus detection is ongoing, a promising result has found using antibody-conjugated magnetic particles and quantum dots.[14][15]
  • Post-exposure treatment for humans.
Nipah virus and Hendra virus are closely related paramyxoviruses that emerged from bats during the 1990s to cause deadly outbreaks in humans and domesticated animals. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)-supported investigators developed vaccines for Nipah and Hendra virus based on the soluble G-glycoproteins of the viruses formulated with adjuvants. Both vaccines have been shown[who?] to induce strong neutralizing antibodies in different laboratory animals.
Trials began in 2015 to evaluate a monoclonal antibody to be used as a possible complementary treatment for humans exposed to Hendra virus infected horses.[16]
  • Deforestation Impact.
When considering any zoonosis, one must understand the social, ecological, and biological contributions that may be facilitating this spillover. Hendra virus is believed to be partially seasonally related, and there is a suggested correlation between breeding time and an increase in the incidence of Hendra virus in flying fox bats.[17][18]
Additionally, recent research suggests that the upsurge in deforestation within Australia may be leading to an increase in the incidence of Hendra virus. Flying fox bats tend to feed in trees during a large part of the year. However, due to the lack of specific fruit trees within the area, these bats are having to relocate and thereby are coming into contact with horses more often. The two most recent outbreaks of Hendra virus in 2011 and 2013 appear to be related to an increased level of nutritional stress among the bats as well as relocation of bat populations. Work is currently being done to increase vaccination among horses as well as replant these important forests as feeding grounds for the flying fox bats. Through these measures, the goal is to decrease the incidences of the highly fatal Hendra virus.[18]

History[edit]

Locations of henipavirus outbreaks (red stars–Hendra virus; blue stars–Nipah virus) and distribution of henipavirus flying fox reservoirs (red shading–Hendra virus; blue shading–Nipah virus)

Emergence[edit]

Hendra virus (originally called "Equine morbillivirus") was discovered in September 1994 when it caused the deaths of thirteen horses, and a trainer at a training complex at 10 Williams Avenue, Hendra, a suburb of Brisbane in Queensland, Australia.[19][20]

The index case, a mare called Drama Series, brought in from a paddock in Cannon Hill, was housed with 19 other horses after falling ill, and died two days later. Subsequently, all of the horses became ill, with 13 dying. The remaining six animals were subsequently euthanised as a way of preventing relapsing infection and possible further transmission.[21] The trainer, Victory ('Vic') Rail, and the stable foreman, Ray Unwin, were involved in nursing the index case, and both fell ill with an influenza-like illness within one week of the first horse's death. The stable hand recovered but Rail died of respiratory and kidney failure. The source of the virus was most likely frothy nasal discharge from the index case.[22]

A second outbreak occurred in August 1994 (chronologically preceding the first outbreak) in Mackay 1,000 km north of Brisbane resulting in the deaths of two horses and their owner.[23] The owner assisted in necropsies of the horses, and within three weeks was admitted to hospital suffering from meningitis. He recovered, but 14 months later developed neurologic signs and died. This outbreak was diagnosed retrospectively by the presence of Hendra virus in the brain of the patient.[24]

Outbreak in Australia[edit]

Hendra virus is located in Queensland
Hendra
Hendra
Mackay
Mackay
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Townsville
Townsville
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Bowen
Bowen
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Hervey Bay
Hervey Bay
Hendra virus
Chinchilla
Chinchilla
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Rockhampton
Rockhampton
Ingham
Ingham
Cairns
Cairns
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Hendra virus
Red dots show outbreaks in Queensland
Hendra virus is located in New South Wales
Hendra virus
Ballina 
Ballina 
Macksville
Macksville
Mullumbimby
Mullumbimby
Lismore
Lismore
Kempsey
Kempsey
Scone
Scone
Sydney
Sydney
Red dots show outbreaks in New South Wales

As of June 2014, a total of fifty outbreaks of Hendra virus have occurred in Australia, all involving infection of horses. As a result of these events, eighty-three horses have died or been euthanized. A further four died or were euthanized as a result of possible Hendra infection.

Case fatality rate in humans is 60% and in horses 75%.[25]

Four of these outbreaks have spread to humans as a result of direct contact with infected horses. On 26 July 2011 a dog living on the Mt Alford property was reported to have HeV antibodies, the first time an animal other than a flying fox, horse, or human has tested positive outside an experimental situation.[26]

These events have all been on the east coast of Australia, with the most northern event at Cairns, Queensland and the event furthest south at Kempsey, New South Wales. Until the event at Chinchilla, Queensland in July 2011, all outbreak sites had been within the distribution of at least two of the four mainland flying foxes (fruit bats); Little red flying fox, (Pteropus scapulatus), black flying fox, (Pteropus alecto), grey-headed flying fox, (Pteropus poliocephalus) and spectacled flying fox, (Pteropus conspicillatus). Chinchilla is considered to be only within the range of little red flying fox and is west of the Great Dividing Range. This is the furthest west the infection has ever been identified in horses.

The timing of incidents indicates a seasonal pattern of outbreaks. Initially this was thought to possibly be related to the breeding cycle of the little red flying foxes. These species typically give birth between April and May.[27][28] Subsequently, however, the Spectacled flying fox and the Black flying fox have been identified as the species more likely to be involved in infection spillovers.[29]

Timing of outbreaks also appears more likely during the cooler months when it is possible the temperature and humidity are more favourable to the longer term survival of the virus in the environment.[30]

There is no evidence of transmission to humans directly from bats, and, as such it appears that human infection only occurs via an intermediate host, a horse.[31] Despite this in 2014 the NSW Government approved the destruction of flying fox colonies.[32]

Events of June–August 2011[edit]

In the years 1994–2010, fourteen events were recorded. Between 20 June 2011 and 28 August 2011, a further seventeen events were identified, during which twenty-one horses died.

It is not clear why there was a sudden increase in the number of spillover events between June and August 2011. Typically HeV spillover events are more common between May and October. This time is sometimes called "Hendra Season",[108] which is a time when there are large numbers of fruit bats of all species congregated in SE Queensland's valuable winter foraging habitat. The weather (warm and humid) is favourable to the survival of henipavirus in the environment.[109]

It is possible flooding in SE Queensland and Northern NSW in December 2010 and January 2011 may have affected the health of the fruit bats. Urine sampling in flying fox camps indicate that a larger proportion of flying foxes than usual are shedding live virus. Biosecurity Queensland's ongoing surveillance usually shows 7% of the animals are shedding live virus. In June and July nearly 30% animals have been reported to be shedding live virus.[110] Present advice is that these events are not being driven by any mutation in HeV itself.[111]

Other suggestions include that an increase in testing has led to an increase in detection. As the actual mode of transmission between bats and horses has not been determined, it is not clear what, if any, factors can increase the chance of infection in horses.[112]

Following the confirmation of a dog with HeV antibodies, on 27 July 2011, the Queensland and NSW governments will boost research funding into the Hendra virus by $6 million to be spent by 2014–2015. This money will be used for research into ecological drivers of infection in the bats and the mechanism of virus transmission between bats and other species.[113][114] A further 6 million dollars was allocated by the federal government with the funds being split, half for human health investigations and half for animal health and biodiversity research.[115]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Edmondston, Jo; Field, Hume (2009). "Research update: Hendra Virus" (PDF). Australian Biosecurity CRC for Emerging Infectious Disease. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  2. ^ Middleton, D. "1Initial experimental characterisation of HeV (Redland Bay 2008) infection in horses" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  3. ^ Lee B, Ataman ZA; Ataman (2011). "Modes of paramyxovirus fusion: a Henipavirus perspective". Trends in Microbiology. 19 (8): 389–399. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2011.03.005. PMC 3264399. PMID 21511478.
  4. ^ Quammen, David. Spillover: Animal Infections and the next Human Pandemic. New York: W.W. Norton, 2012. Print.
  5. ^ "Opinion: combating the deadly Hendra virus". CSIRO. 13 May 2011. Archived from the original on 24 November 2012.
  6. ^ "Equine Henda Virus Vaccine Launched in Australia". The Horse. 1 November 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
  7. ^ Taylor, John; Guest, Annie (1 November 2012). "Breakthrough Hendra virus vaccine released for horses". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  8. ^ Pallister, J; Middleton, D; Wang, LF (2011). "A recombinant Hendra virus G glycoprotein-based subunit vaccine protects ferrets from lethal Hendra virus challenge". Vaccine. 29 (24): 5623–30. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.06.015. PMC 3153950. PMID 21689706.
  9. ^ Fraser, Kelmeny (24 July 2011). "Hendra virus scientists push for vaccine to be fast-tracked". The Sunday Mail. Queensland. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  10. ^ "Hendra vaccine could be ready in 2012". Australian Associated Press. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  11. ^ "Autopsy carried out on exhumed horse to determine if Hendra vaccine caused its death - By Marty McCarthy". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation 30 December 2014. 30 December 2014. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  12. ^ "Chemical regulator registers Hendra vaccine, releases data on reported side effects - By Marty McCarthy". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation 5 August 2015. 4 August 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  13. ^ "Hendra vaccine approved for use in pregnant mares - By Kim Honan". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  14. ^ Huw Morgan (20 September 2012). "A 'quantum' step towards on-the-spot Hendra virus detection". news@CSIRO. Retrieved 20 September 2012.
  15. ^ Lisi F, Falcaro P, Buso B, Hill AJ, Barr JA, Crameri G, Nguyen TL, Wang LF, Mulvaney P (2012). "Rapid Detection of Hendra Virus Using Magnetic Particles and Quantum Dots". Advanced Healthcare Materials. 1 (5): 631–634. doi:10.1002/adhm.201200072. PMID 23184798.
  16. ^ - By Robin McConchie (April 2015). "Hendra trials for humans about treatment not prevention". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  17. ^ Plowright, R. K. et al. (15 January 2008). Reproduction and nutritional stress are risk factors for Hendra virus infection in little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus).http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/royprsb/275/1636/861.full.pdf
  18. ^ a b Plowright RK; et al. (2015). "Ecological dynamics of emerging bat virus spillover". Proc. R. Soc. B. 282 (1798): 20142124. doi:10.1098/rspb.2014.2124. PMC 4262174. PMID 25392474.
  19. ^ a b Selvey LA, Wells RM, McCormack JG (1995). "Infection of humans and horses by a newly described morbillivirus". Medical Journal of Australia. 162 (12): 642–5. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.1995.tb126050.x. PMID 7603375. S2CID 2320079.
  20. ^ Benson, Bruce (1994–2011). Vic Rail and Hendra Virus films 1991-2011 (Motion picture). Australia: State Library of Queensland.
  21. ^ a b c d e "Hendra virus: the initial research". Department of Employment, Economic Development, and Innovation, Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries. Archived from the original on 13 December 2009. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  22. ^ Peacock, Mark (29 October 1995). "Outbreak at Victory Lodge". Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  23. ^ a b Field, H; Young, P; Yob, JM; Mills, J; Hall, L; MacKenzie, J (2001). "The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses". Microbes and Infection. 3 (4): 307–14. doi:10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01384-3. PMID 11334748.
  24. ^ Walker, Jamie (23 July 2011). "Hendra death toll hits 13 for month". The Australian. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  25. ^ Field, H; de Jong, C; Melville, D; Smith, C; Smith, I; Broos, A; Kung, YH; McLaughlin, A; Zeddeman, A (2011). Fooks, Anthony R (ed.). "Hendra virus infection dynamics in Australian fruit bats". PLOS ONE. 6 (12): e28678. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...628678F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028678. PMC 3235146. PMID 22174865.
  26. ^ "Chief vet says dog hendra case 'unprecedented'". 612 ABC Brisbane. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
  27. ^ "Little Red Flying Fox (Pteropus scapulatus)". Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  28. ^ Plowright RK, Field HE, Smith C, Divljan A, Palmer C, Tabor G, Daszak P, Foley JE (2008). "Reproduction and nutritional stress are risk factors for Hendra virus infection in little red flying foxes (Pteropus scapulatus)". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 275 (1636): 861–869. doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1260. PMC 2596896. PMID 18198149.
  29. ^ Smith, C; et al. (17 June 2014). "Flying-Fox Species Density - A Spatial Risk Factor for Hendra Virus Infection in Horses in Eastern Australia". PLOS ONE. 9 (6): e99965. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...999965S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099965. PMC 4061024. PMID 24936789.
  30. ^ Fogarty, R; Halpin, Kim; et al. (2008). "Henipavirus susceptibility to environmental variables". Virus Research. 132 (1–2): 140–144. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2007.11.010. PMC 3610175. PMID 18166242.
  31. ^ Selvey L (28 October 1996). "Screening of Bat Carers for Antibodies to Equine Morbillivirus" (PDF). CDI. 20 (22): 477–478.
  32. ^ Pain, Stephanie (17 October 2015). "The real batman". New Scientist. 228 (3043): 47. Bibcode:2015NewSc.228...47P. doi:10.1016/s0262-4079(15)31425-1. Last year, the government of New South Wales sanctioned the destruction of colonies of flying foxes. Why? In 1996, Hendra virus was discovered in Australia.
  33. ^ Field, HE; Barratt, PC; Hughes, RJ; Shield, J; Sullivan, ND (2000). "A fatal case of Hendra virus infection in a horse in north Queensland: clinical and epidemiological features". Australian Veterinary Journal. 78 (4): 279–80. doi:10.1111/j.1751-0813.2000.tb11758.x. PMID 10840578.
  34. ^ a b c Hanna, JN; McBride, WJ; Brookes, DL (2006). "Hendra virus infection in a veterinarian". Medical Journal of Australia. 185 (10): 562–4. doi:10.5694/j.1326-5377.2006.tb00692.x. PMC 7168387. PMID 17115969.
  35. ^ "Notifiable Diseases: Hendra Virus" (PDF). Animal Health Surveillance. 4: 4–5. 2006. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  36. ^ ProMED-mail. Hendra virus, human, equine – Australia (Queensland) (03): correction. ProMED-mail 2007; 3 September: 20070903.2896.
  37. ^ "Queensland vet dies from Hendra virus". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 21 August 2008.
  38. ^ Brown, Kimberly S (23 August 2008). "Horses and Human Die in Australia Hendra Outbreak; Government Comes Under Fire". The Horse. Retrieved 26 August 2008.
  39. ^ Perkins, Nigel (2 December 2008) "Independent review of Hendra virus cases at Redlands and Proserpine in July and August 2008". (the 2008 Perkins Review). dpi.qld.gov.au
  40. ^ "Vet tests positive to Hendra virus". The Australian. 20 August 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2009.
  41. ^ Natasha Bita (2 September 2009). "Alister Rodgers dies of Hendra virus after 2 weeks in coma". The Australian. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
  42. ^ "Horse dies from Hendra virus in Queensland". news.com.au. 20 May 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  43. ^ "Biosecurity Queensland". Facebook. 1 July 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
  44. ^ "Biosecurity Queensland confirms second Hendra case in South East Queensland". Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. 2 July 2011. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012.
  45. ^ "Another confirmed horse with Hendra virus at Mt Alford". Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. 4 July 2011. Archived from the original on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  46. ^ "Hendra virus infection confirmed in a dog". Facebook. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  47. ^ Agius, Kym; Marszalek, Jessica; Berry, Petrina (26 July 2011). "Scientists guessing over Hendra dog". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
  48. ^ Marszalek, Jessica (31 July 2011). "Dog put down after more Hendra tests". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press. Retrieved 31 July 2011.
  49. ^ Calligeros, Marissa (29 June 2011). "Eight face Hendra tests after horse's death". Brisbane Times. Australian Associated Press. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
  50. ^ "Biosecurity Queensland adds Logan result to confirmed Hendra cases". Facebook. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
  51. ^ Miles, Janelle; Robertson, Josh (26 July 2011). "Biosecurity Queensland investigates possible Hendra virus case near Chinchilla". The Courier-Mail. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  52. ^ "Confirmed case of hendra virus on NSW North Coast". 1 July 2014. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
  53. ^ Joyce, Jo (11 October 2011). "Hendra horse owners speak out". ABC North Coast NSW. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  54. ^ "Biosecurity Bulletin" (PDF) (Press release). NSW Government Department of Primary Industries. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
  55. ^ "Second case of Hendra virus in NSW near Macksville". dpi.nsw.gov.au. 7 July 2011
  56. ^ "Second horse dies from Hendra in New South Wales on property near Macksville". Australian Associated Press. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  57. ^ "Update: Hendra virus infection confirmed at Park Ridge" (Press release). Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. 5 July 2011. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  58. ^ Hurst, Daniel (12 July 2011). "Hendra outbreak at LNP candidate's horse riding property". Brisbane Times. Australian Associated Press. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  59. ^ "Hendra virus case confirmed in Hervey Bay" (Press release). Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. 16 July 2011. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
  60. ^ "Fourth NSW horse dies from Hendra virus". Australian Associated Press. 17 July 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  61. ^ "Hendra virus case confirmed in Boondall area" (Press release). Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. 16 July 2014. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
  62. ^ "Hendra virus case confirmed in Chinchilla area". Facebook. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  63. ^ "Fifth Hendra case confirmed at Mullumbimby" (Press release). NSW Department of Primary Industries. 28 July 2011. Archived from the original on 8 December 2011. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  64. ^ a b "Biosecurity Bulletin" (PDF) (Press release). NSW Department of Primary Industries. 18 August 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
  65. ^ "Biosecurity Bulletin" (PDF) (Press release). NSW Department of Primary Industries. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
  66. ^ Stephanie Small (23 August 2011). "Another Hendra outbreak in Queensland". Retrieved 23 August 2011.
  67. ^ "Biosecurity Bulletin" (PDF) (Press release). NSW Department of Primary Industries. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 30 August 2011.
  68. ^ "New Hendra Virus Case in Caboolture Area". Facebook. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
  69. ^ "Second Hendra virus case confirmed at Beachmere property October 15, 2011 at 1:42am". Facebook Notes. 15 October 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  70. ^ "New Hendra virus case in Townsville area". Facebook. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  71. ^ a b "Two new Hendra virus cases confirmed". Facebook. 29 May 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  72. ^ a b "Quarantine lifted after Hendra outbreaks". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  73. ^ "Hendra virus quarantines lifted in Ingham and Rockhampton". Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. 12 July 2012. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013.
  74. ^ Guest, Annie (20 July 2014). "Hendra virus found in Rockhampton". PM. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  75. ^ "Horses put down after showing Hendra symptoms". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 27 July 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  76. ^ "Two horses euthanased on Rockhampton property". Facebook. 26 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  77. ^ "New Hendra virus case in Mackay". Facebook. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  78. ^ "New Hendra virus case in Cairns area". Facebook. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  79. ^ "Testing underway after latest Hendra outbreak". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
  80. ^ "New twist to Port Douglas Hendra death". Horse Zone. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  81. ^ "Horse dead after contracting Hendra virus". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 3 November 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  82. ^ "Horses to be tested after Hendra virus outbreak". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 4 November 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  83. ^ "Horse dies from Hendra virus near Mackay". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  84. ^ "New Hendra virus case confirmed in Qld". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 22 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
  85. ^ Honan, Kim (10 June 2013). "First NSW Hendra horse death in two years". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 10 June 2013.
  86. ^ Burgess, Sam (4 July 2013). "Second Brisbane Valley property faces Hendra virus lockdown". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  87. ^ Campbell, Camilla (6 July 2013). "Hendra Outbreak Again in Macksville". NBN News. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  88. ^ "New Hendra case confirmed on NSW mid north coast" (Press release). NSW Department of Primary Industries. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  89. ^ "Dog infected with Hendra". The Land. NSW Department of Primary Industries. 20 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  90. ^ "New Hendra virus case confirmed on Gold Coast". Facebook. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2013.
  91. ^ "Third Hendra case confirmed west of Kempsey" (Press release). NSW Department of Primary Industries. 8 July 2013. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  92. ^ "Hendra virus claims fourth horse death on NSW mid north coast" (Press release). NSW Department of Primary Industries. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original on 28 August 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  93. ^ "Fourth horse dies of Hendra virus at Kempsey on NSW mid north coast". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 10 July 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2013.
  94. ^ Jo Skinner (19 May 2014). "Tests reveal Hendra virus in horse on southern Qld property". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  95. ^ "Hendra virus outbreak south of Brisbane" – Australian Broadcasting Corporation – Retrieved 4 June 2014.
  96. ^ "Hendra Virus case near Murwillumbah" – NSW Department of Primary Industries – Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  97. ^ Sawyer, Scott. "Officers still on scene at Hendra virus property". Gladstone Observer. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  98. ^ "Hendra virus kills horse on north coast of New South Wales" – By Michael Condon |publisher= Australian Broadcasting Corporation – Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  99. ^ "Hendra virus case confirmed after horse dies in North Queensland". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  100. ^ "Horse dead from Hendra near Lismore in northern New South Wales - By Kim Honan". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 4 September 2015. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  101. ^ "Hendra virus infection in horse near Casino" – NSW Department of Primary Industries – Retrieved 26 December 2016.
  102. ^ "New Hendra virus case confirmed in Gold Coast Hinterland". Biosecurity Queensland. 26 May 2017. Archived from the original on 6 August 2017. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
  103. ^ "Hendra virus confirmed near Lismore - By NSW DPI". NSW Department of Primary Industries. 9 July 2017. 9 July 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  104. ^ "Hendra virus confirmed near Murwillumbah - By NSW DPI". NSW Department of Primary Industries. 2 August 2017. 2 August 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  105. ^ "Third Hendra case confirmed". NSW Department of Primary Industries. NSW Department of Primary Industries. 6 August 2017. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
  106. ^ "Potentially deadly Hendra virus spreads further south in New South Wales". ABC News. ABC. 13 June 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  107. ^ "Latest case of Hendra virus discovered on the Far North Coast of New South Wales". ABC News. ABC. 3 June 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2021.
  108. ^ Epidemiological methodology of communicating higher contagion periods for better common, non-scientific individual understanding
  109. ^ Fogarty, R. D.; Halpin, K.; Hyatt, A. D.; Daszak, P.; Mungall, B. A. (2008). "Henipavirus susceptibility to environmental variables". Virus Research. 132 (1–2): 140–144. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2007.11.010. PMC 3610175. PMID 18166242.
  110. ^ Tony Moore (28 July 2011). "Nearly a third of bats now carry Hendra: researchers". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  111. ^ Janelle Miles; Andrew MacDonald; Koren Helbig (29 July 2011). "Fearon family plead with authorities for stay of execution for Hendra positive dog Dusty". The Courier-Mail. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  112. ^ Emma Sykes (4 July 2011). "Hendra virus research continues as more horses contract the disease". 612 ABC Brisbane. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  113. ^ "New hunt for Hendra in other species". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  114. ^ Guest, Annie (27 July 2011). "Urgent funds for hendra research". The World Today. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  115. ^ "Gillard Government helping in response to Hendra". 29 July 2011. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012.

External links[edit]