Hengchun

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Hengchun

恆春

Heng-chun
Hengchun Township · 恆春鎮
Beach in Kenting
Beach in Kenting
Hengchun Township in Pingtung County
Hengchun Township in Pingtung County
CountryTaiwan
RegionSouthern Taiwan
Area
 • Total136.7630 km2 (52.8045 sq mi)
Population
 (December 2014)
 • Total30,859
 • Density230/km2 (580/sq mi)
Households10568
Divisions17 villages, 272 neighborhoods
Postal code946
Websitewww.hengchuen.gov.tw (in Chinese)
Hengchun
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese恆春
Literal meaningEternal Spring
Japanese name
Kanji恒春
Alternate name: Longkiau
Traditional Chinese瑯嶠
Literal meaningTranscribing an indigenous name
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese琅嶠
Second alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese琅𤩝

Hengchun Township is a township located on the southern tip of the Hengchun Peninsula in Pingtung County, Taiwan. It is the southernmost township in Taiwan. Hengchun is also the only urban township in the southern part of Pingtung County. Hengchun has a land area of 136.76 km2 (52.80 sq mi) and has a population of 30,859 as of December 2014.

The city of Hengchun is the entryway to Kenting National Park, the southernmost National Park in the country. With pristine beaches and a vibrant tourist industry, the Hengchun area often attracts more travelers than local residents. The city itself was once completely surrounded by a city wall; now about half of the wall remains intact, as well as the four city gates. On weekends, the streets of nearby Kenting are filled with cars and tour buses.

The 2008 Taiwanese film Cape No. 7, the top-grossing film in Taiwan's film history, features Hengchun.

Names[edit]

The area of the modern township was known to the Dutch as Lonkjouw,[1] alternatively spelled Liangkiau,[2] Long-kiau,[3] Longkiau, Loncjou, Lonckjau, Lonckiau, Lonkiauw, Lonckjouw, and Lonckquiouw in early records.[4] The name was borrowed from the Paiwan language of the Paiwan people who lived in the area before the Han Chinese's colonization during 18th century.

The Qing viceroy Shen Baozhen noted the equitable climate during his 1875 inspection of Taiwan Island, with the area's crops staying "green and prosperous" year-round. He began calling the area Hengchun ("Always Spring") before he left, and the name has remained ever since. Under Japanese rule, the area was known as Kōshun, from the Japanese pronunciation of the same name.[5]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The village of Longkiau was the southernmost town that was occupied by the Dutch on Taiwan Island.[2] The area was mostly occupied by the Paiwan and other Taiwanese aborigines.

Qing Dynasty[edit]

After the Rover Incident, wherein shipwrecked American sailors were massacred by the locals, Charles Le Gendre, the US consul at Amoy (Xiamen), visited the area. He found Longkiau at the far point of the curve forming Longkiau Bay.[6] Its population of about 1,500 was "mostly engaged in the culture of peanuts, rice, sweet potatoes, a little sugar cane, and also in fishing".[7]

In response to the 1871 Mudan Incident, wherein shipwrecked Ryukyuan sailors were massacred by the locals, Japan—following America's example—undertook a punitive expedition in 1874. The Japanese landed in Longkiau Bay and pushed north from there.[8]

Now aware of the danger of foreign interference and colonization posed by the Qing Empire's refusal to take responsibility for the actions of Taiwan's aborigines, the viceroy of Liangjiang Shen Baozhen toured Taiwan in 1875 in preparation for reform of the island's administration. He ordered attacks against the still restive tribes and began a building program in the southern half of the island which included the fortified lighthouse at Eluanbi. He memorialized on behalf of building a new city in Longkiau (which he gave the more propitious Chinese name "Hengchun") to accommodate and protect foreign sailors. This request was granted: the portion of Fengshan County south of Fangliao's river became the new Hengchun County[9] and its officials fortified a village south of the old Longkiau as their new county seat. The old location continued to be known as Longkiau.[3]

Taiwan Prefecture originally covered the entire island as part of Fujian Province. When the island became its own province in 1887, Hengchun County formed part of Tainan Prefecture.

Japanese rule[edit]

Under Japanese rule, the town was known as Kōshun. It received a local office (, chō) in November 1901[10] and became the seat of its own district in Takao Prefecture in 1920.

Post-war[edit]

The Republic of China (ROC) took over Taiwan after World War II.

On December 26, 2006, a 7.0–7.2 magnitude earthquake with an epicenter off the southwest coast of Taiwan occurred (approximately 22.8 km southwest of Hengchun). It caused damage to many houses in Hengchun, including fifteen historical buildings in the historic center of the township.[11] Two casualties were reported, with many more injured. It was the strongest earthquake to hit Hengchun in one hundred years.[12]

Geography[edit]

Hengchun is the southernmost administrative division of the island. It is bordered to the northwest by Checheng Township and to the northeast by Manzhou Township.

Climate[edit]

Hengchun (2009-2013)
Climate chart (explanation)
J
F
M
A
M
J
J
A
S
O
N
D
 
 
26
 
 
26
18
 
 
31
 
 
27
19
 
 
19
 
 
28
20
 
 
60
 
 
30
23
 
 
197
 
 
31
24
 
 
415
 
 
32
25
 
 
391
 
 
32
26
 
 
417
 
 
32
25
 
 
242
 
 
31
25
 
 
143
 
 
31
24
 
 
49
 
 
28
22
 
 
21
 
 
26
20
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Wunderground

Hengchun is well known for its tropical monsoon climate with warm temperatures year round, as befits its name. It usually has neither a cool winter nor an extremely hot summer, with average monthly mean temperatures ranging between 21 and 28 degrees Celsius. The climate is generally divided into two seasons, the cooler and drier season and the warmer and wetter season. During the cool and dry season from early December to late March of the following year, precipitation are relatively low with temperatures ranging from 18-26 Degrees Celsius, occasional cold fronts can drop both the day and the night time temperatures by around 2-4 °C, while temperatures during a clear sunny day can reach as high as 28-30 °C. During the warm and wet season temperature range from 24–32 degrees Celsius with a relatively abundant rainfall especially from May–October, when Taiwan is affected by the Pacific typhoon season.

Hengchun's spring-like climate is very much dictated by its location surrounded by the ocean, resulting in a noticeably smaller difference between the day and night temperatures than most other townships of Pingtung. Hengchun is usually cooler than other townships in the county during daytime and warmer than others during the night, especially during the winter months, when daily lows usually hovers around 18-20 degrees Celsius at Hengchun and around 15-18 at Pingtung city, while daily highs usually hovers around 24-26 degrees Celsius at the township and 25-28 at Pingtung City. Temperatures dips below 15 degrees Celsius on average once every 3 years, mostly on early mornings of January when Taiwan is affected by a cold front.

The climate is also supportive of tropical rainforests (tropical monsoon rainforest) which occupied the entire Hengchun peninsula, while palm trees and other tropical vegetation grows on the coastlines, much like the rest of Pingtung.

Climate data for Hengchun
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 33.1
(91.6)
34.3
(93.7)
34.5
(94.1)
35.1
(95.2)
36.4
(97.5)
37.2
(99.0)
37.1
(98.8)
37.3
(99.1)
36.2
(97.2)
35.6
(96.1)
34.5
(94.1)
33.7
(92.7)
37.3
(99.1)
Average high °C (°F) 24.3
(75.7)
25.4
(77.7)
27.3
(81.1)
29.4
(84.9)
30.9
(87.6)
31.4
(88.5)
31.9
(89.4)
31.6
(88.9)
31.0
(87.8)
29.7
(85.5)
27.6
(81.7)
25.0
(77.0)
28.8
(83.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.7
(69.3)
21.5
(70.7)
23.2
(73.8)
25.2
(77.4)
27.0
(80.6)
28.0
(82.4)
28.4
(83.1)
28.1
(82.6)
27.4
(81.3)
26.3
(79.3)
24.4
(75.9)
21.8
(71.2)
25.2
(77.4)
Average low °C (°F) 18.1
(64.6)
18.8
(65.8)
20.2
(68.4)
22.3
(72.1)
24.1
(75.4)
25.4
(77.7)
25.6
(78.1)
25.3
(77.5)
24.7
(76.5)
23.9
(75.0)
22.1
(71.8)
19.4
(66.9)
22.5
(72.5)
Record low °C (°F) 8.4
(47.1)
9.0
(48.2)
10.1
(50.2)
15.3
(59.5)
18.2
(64.8)
19.5
(67.1)
21.1
(70.0)
21.3
(70.3)
20.6
(69.1)
17.4
(63.3)
15.1
(59.2)
10.0
(50.0)
8.4
(47.1)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 17.3
(0.68)
25.3
(1.00)
20.3
(0.80)
37.3
(1.47)
166.4
(6.55)
378.6
(14.91)
388.4
(15.29)
502.5
(19.78)
323.0
(12.72)
110.7
(4.36)
54.9
(2.16)
28.3
(1.11)
2,053
(80.83)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 8.0 6.8 4.8 6.3 11.1 16.9 16.4 18.9 15.9 10.8 7.1 6.1 129.1
Average relative humidity (%) 72.6 73.7 74.4 75.4 78.5 83.6 83.3 84.0 79.7 74.0 70.8 70.7 76.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 168.0 165.1 199.7 192.6 193.9 183.6 221.0 195.5 177.2 198.1 177.7 161.4 2,233.8
Source: Central Weather Bureau (Normals 1984-2013, Extremes 1961-present, Rain 1981-2014)[13][14]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Hengchun Township office

The township comprises 17 villages: Chengbei, Chengnan, Chengxi, Daguang, Dehe, Eluan, Jiahu, Kending, Longshui, Nanwan, Renshou, Shanhai, Shanjiao, Shuiquan, Sigou, Tougou and Wangsha.

Education[edit]

Vocational High School

Middle School

Elementary Schools

Tourist attractions[edit]

It was built during the 1st year of Kanghsu's reign
South Gate of Hengchun Fortress
Cape Eluanbi in Hengchun is the southernmost point in Taiwan
Kenting Night Market

Hengchun is located within Kenting National Park and is the gateway to the tropical beach resorts and night markets of Kenting, therefore it is one of the most well known tourist towns in Taiwan.

The "Hengchun Old Town" (恆春古城) is one of the best-preserved historical towns in Taiwan with four gates intact and about half of the walls remaining. It was built during the Qing Dynasty in the 1st year of the Guangxu Era (1875) and completed in 1879. It has a north, east, south, and west gate and the outer circumference of the moat measures 880 zhang (about 2,700 m or 8,800 ft). In 1988, an actual measurement of the length was conducted, showing that the length in total amount to 2,550 meters (8,370 ft).

The peak season of tourism in Hengchun usually lasts from April to late October when daytime temperatures are usually hot, while the off season lasts from November to March of the following year, with the exception of the week of the Chinese New Year holiday which usually takes place during late January or February, when large amount of tourist from around the whole country, mostly from Northern Taiwan travels to Hengchun and Kenting for the peninsula's warm weather.

Festivals[edit]

  • Pingtung Picturesque Rice Field Life Festival[15]
  • Folk Music Festival [16]

Transportation[edit]

The township was served by Hengchun Airport, with domestic flights from Taipei Songshan Airport in Taipei. Scheduled flights ceased in 2014.

Notable natives[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Andrade, Tonio (2005). "Chapter 1: Taiwan on the Eve of Colonization". How Taiwan Became Chinese: Dutch, Spanish, and Han Colonization in the Seventeenth Century. Columbia University Press. Note 40. The main villages of Lonkjouw were in the area of present-day Hengchun.
  2. ^ a b Davidson (1903), p. 23.
  3. ^ a b Campbell (1896), map.
  4. ^ Campbell, William (1903). "Explanatory Notes". Formosa under the Dutch: described from contemporary records, with explanatory notes and a bibliography of the island. London: Kegan Paul. p. 545. LCCN 04007338. OCLC 644323041.
  5. ^ Governor-General of Taiwan (1931–1932). "hêng-chhun (恒春)". In Ogawa Naoyoshi (ed.). 臺日大辭典 [Taiwanese-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese and Hokkien). 2. Taihoku: 同府 [Dōfu]. p. 632. OCLC 25747241.CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link).
  6. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 118.
  7. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 118-9.
  8. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 126.
  9. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 209.
  10. ^ Davidson (1903), p. 597.
  11. ^ 恆春古城 城倒15座[permanent dead link], UDN, Taiwan, 2006-12-27 (in Chinese)
  12. ^ 2 KILLED IN STRONGEST EARTHQUAKE IN HENGCHUN IN 100 YEARS Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine, Central News Agency, Taiwan, 2006-12-27
  13. ^ "Climate". Central Weather Bureau.
  14. ^ "Climate". Central Weather Bureau.
  15. ^ "RICE ART - Taipei Times". www.taipeitimes.com. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  16. ^ "HEAR HERE".

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 22°00′N 120°45′E / 22.000°N 120.750°E / 22.000; 120.750