Henri Alexis Brialmont
25 May 1821|
Venlo, United Netherlands
|Died||21 July 1903
|Known for||Contributions to military engineering and fortifications|
Henri-Alexis Brialmont (Venlo, 25 May 1821 – Brussels, 21 July 1903), nicknamed The Belgian Vauban, was a Belgian army officer, politician and writer of the 19th century, best known as a military architect and fortress designer. Brialmont qualified as an officer in the Belgian army engineers in 1843 and quickly rose up the ranks. He served as a staff officer, and later was given command of the district of Antwerp. In 1877 he became a Lieutenant-General and finished his careers as Inspector-General of the Army. Brialmont was also an active pamphleteer and political campaigner and lobbied through his career for reform and expansion of the Belgian military and was also involved in the foundation of the Congo Free State.
Today, Brialmont is best known for the fortifications which he designed in Belgium, Romania and the Congo Free State. In particular, the fortifications built in Belgium at the end of the 1880s around the towns of Liège, Namur and Antwerp would play an important role during the early stages of the German campaign in Belgium during World War I.
Henri-Alexis Brialmont was born in Venlo in Dutch Limburg in 1821. His father, Mathieu Brialmont, had served in the French Grand Armée during the Napoelonic Wars where he had reached the rank of Captain. During Dutch rule in Belgium, Mathieu Brialmont served in the Dutch army and, after Belgian independence in 1830, joined the Belgian army. In 1849 he was made General, and was appointed Minister of War in 1850. Although Venlo is not situated in Belgium today, the Belgian government claimed rights over the territory after the Belgian Revolution until it was forced to abandon it at the Treaty of London settlement in 1839.
Henri-Alexis performed poorly at school but succeeded in getting into a military academy. In 1859, during his military career, he married the daughter of the journalist and leading figure of the Belgian Revolution, Louis de Potter.
Brialmont graduated in 1843 as military school where he graduated as a Sous-lieutenant of the Engineers. He quickly rose up the ranks, being promoted to Lieutenant in 1847. From 1847 to 1850 he was private secretary to the war minister, General Baron Félix Chazal. In 1855 he entered the staff corps, became major in 1861, lieutenant-colonel 1864, colonel in 1868 and major-general in 1874. In this rank he held at first the position of director of fortifications in the Antwerp district (1874). In 1877 he was promoted to Lieutenant General and later Inspector-General of the Army; a post which he held until his retirement in 1892.
During the Belgian response to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, Brialmont, then a colonel, served as chief-of-staff of the Army of Antwerp, assigned to defending the National Redoubt. However, during his whole military career, Brialmost never once served in a war, even though some Belgian soldiers served during the Mexican Adventure (1861-7) and during fighting for the Unification of Italy.
From his early career, Brialmont advocated expanding the importance of the Belgian army. In 1850, he convinced his father to resign his ministerial post rather than consent to a lowering of defence spending. His stance put him into conflict with Walthère Frère-Orban and the Liberals. From 1855, he began campaigning for restructuring of the defenses of the crucial port city of Antwerp in north-east Belgium. Despite being officially warned off the politically-unpopular project, he refused. In the mid 1850s, he published a series of pamphlets arguing for the reorganization and expansion of the tiny Belgian navy, which he believed could be used for imperialist purposes projecting Belgian influence abroad. Although Leopold I was deeply opposed, his son, the future-King Leopold II, was impressed by Brialmont's ideas and the two corresponded frequently. Brialmont felt that colonial expansion as essential in order to make Belgium a world power, and he was an energetic supporter of Leopold II's Congo Free State, which he helped to found, in the 1880s. Nevertheless, Brialmont refused the offer of becoming Leopold II's aide-de-camp.
Political and historical writings
Brialmont was an energetic writer. In 1851, he published his first major work, entitled Considérations politiques et militaires sur la Belgique, which was well received. In 1872, he created the newspaper Belgique militaire. He also wrote a number of historical works, including an account of the campaigns of the Duke of Wellington.
|Classic Brialmont fortress designs|
Brialmont was also an early supporter of using wire entanglements for defensive purposes. In an 1879 pamphlet, he advocated the use of wire barricades (though not barbed wire, which was only invented in 1874) to stop infantry assaults.
Romania and the Congo
In 1882, Brialmont was commissioned by King Carol I of Romania to design a series of fortifications to protect the new state of Romania against invasion. Brialmont was refused permission by the Belgian government to visit Romania in his official capacity and instead went to Romania as a private citizen. On his return he was accused by Frère-Orban of having endangered Belgian neutrality.
- Netz, Reviel (2009). Barbed Wire: an Ecology of Modernity. S.l.: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 0819569593.
- Coetzee, Daniel; Eysturlid, Lee W., eds. (2013). Philosophers of War: the Evolution of History's Greatest Military Thinkers 1. S.l.: Praeger Pub Text. ISBN 0275989771.
- Mayer, Émile (1929). "Brialmont". Revue d'histoire moderne 2 (9): 177–90.
- P. CROKAERT, Brialmont (contenant les mémoires du général).
- P. CROKAERT, Un Précurseur: le général Brialmont.
- L. CHÔMÉ, Brialmont poète, in: Belgique artistique et littéraire, September 1906.
- Général WAUWERMANS, Le lieutenant général Brialmont, in: La Belgique militaire.
- Louis LECONTE, Coup d'oeil sur la marine de guerre belge, 1830-1912, in: Bulletin de la Presse et de Bibliographie militaire
- Louis LECONTE, Henri-Alexis Brialmont, in: Biographie nationale de Belgique, T. XXX, Brussel, 1958, col. 212-230.