The Lincoln Memorial in 2006
|Died||February 16, 1924 (aged 57)|
|Awards||AIA Gold Medal|
Henry Bacon (November 28, 1866 – February 16, 1924) was an American Beaux-Arts architect who is best remembered for the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. (built 1915–22), which was his final project.
Education and early career
Henry Bacon was born in Watseka, Illinois. He studied briefly at the University of Illinois, Urbana (1884), but left to begin his architectural career as a draftsman, eventually serving in the office of McKim, Mead & White (MMW) in New York City, one of the best-known architectural firms in its time. Bacon’s works of that period were in the late Greek Revival and Beaux-Arts architectures associated with the firm, which included the 1889 Paris World Expo, the Boston Public Library, the New York Herald Building, the Harvard Club of New York, Columbia University's Morningside Heights campus, the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893, and New York's Pennsylvania Station, among others. His later works included the Danforth Memorial Library in Paterson, New Jersey (1908), the train station in Naugatuck, Connecticut, Court of the Four Seasons at Panama-Pacific Expo in San Francisco 1915, World War I Memorial at Yale University, the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C., the Confederate Memorial in Wilmington, North Carolina, and many other distinguished public buildings and monuments.
While at MMW, Bacon won, in 1889, the Rotch Traveling Scholarship for architectural students. This gave him two years of study and travel in Europe, which he spent learning and drawing details of Roman and Greek architecture. In Turkey, he met his future wife, Laura Florence Calvert, daughter of a British Consul. He traveled with another fellowship student, Albert Kahn, who would become a leading industrial architect. Returning to the U.S., he spent a few more years with his mentor, Charles McKim, working on projects such as the Rhode Island State House in Providence, Rhode Island, and serving as McKim's personal representative in Paris during the Paris World's Expo 1889 and in Chicago for the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, for which MMW was designing several buildings.
In 1897, Bacon left MMW to found, with James Brite, a younger architect from the firm, the partnership of Brite and Bacon Architects. There, Brite was in charge of financial, administrative and contracting aspects of the partnership, while Bacon was in charge of the architectural design and construction. The partnership immediately won the competition for the Jersey City Public Library and the Hall of History for American University in Washington, D.C., and thereafter built a good number of public buildings and a small number of private residences-most notably the La Fetra Mansion in Summit, New Jersey.
The partnership was selected in 1897 to build three private residences: La Fetra Mansion in Summit, New Jersey; Laurel Hill, a three-story Georgian mansion in Columbia, North Carolina; and Donald McRae House in Wilmington, North Carolina. The La Fetra Mansion was designed and built by Bacon, and his design was published in the September 1901 issue of Architecture, the pre-eminent architectural professional journal of its time. The LeFetra Mansion fully exhibits Bacon's preference for Beaux-Arts Neo-Greek and Roman architecture styles. His simple and elegant lines, and his skill in dimensions and proportions, gave rise to a stately elegance, peaceful tranquility, and a sense of divine protection.
In 1897, Bacon was also approached by a group which was organized with the intent to raise public and private funds to build a monument in Washington, D.C. to memorialize Abraham Lincoln. Bacon began his conceptual, artistic, and architectural design for the Lincoln Memorial that year, and he continued in the effort even though the funding for the building of the project did not materialize until years later. The Brite and Bacon Partnership dissolved in 1902, partly resulting from Brite's disagreement over Bacon's passion and the unpaid time he spent on the design. After that, Bacon practiced under his own name with significant success, building a large number of famous public buildings and monuments, until his death in 1924.
In 1913, Bacon was elected into the National Academy of Design as an associate member, and he became a full member in 1917.
Bacon was very active as a designer of monuments and settings for public sculpture. He designed the Court of the Four Seasons for the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco, and the World War I Memorial at Yale University. He collaborated with sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens on the Sen. Mark Hanna Monument in Cleveland, Ohio, and with Daniel Chester French on numerous monuments, notably the Lincoln Memorial's pensive colossal Lincoln. Olin Memorial Library, one of Bacon's buildings at Wesleyan University, houses many of Bacon's documents and blueprints of the Lincoln Memorial.
Bacon rarely found time to design private residences. There are three known residential projects that are clearly his work. The first is the La Fetra Mansion in Summit, New Jersey, designed and built by the firm of Brite & Bacon from 1897 to 1900. Bacon skillfully integrated into a residential setting many of his signature Greek Revival and Roman Renaissance elements and proportions. The resulting elegance was astoundingly masterful. The La Fetra Mansion was commissioned by industrialist Harold A. La Fetra of the Royal Baking Powder Company, which later merged with RJR Nabisco. The second is the rustic resort "Donald McRae House" in Wilmington, North Carolina, for his close friend Donald McRae.
The third Bacon-designed private residence is Chesterwood House, which he designed for his friend, the noted sculptor Daniel Chester French, as his summer home and studio at Stockbridge, Massachusetts. Its exterior bears similarity to the La Fetra Mansion.
Bacon served as a member of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts from 1921 until his death in 1924. In May 1923, President Warren G. Harding presented Bacon with the American Institute of Architects's Gold Medal, making him the 6th recipient of that honor. Bacon died of cancer in New York City, and he is buried at Oakdale Cemetery in Wilmington, North Carolina.
Notable monuments and public buildings
- Lincoln Memorial, Washington, DC
- Danforth Memorial Library, Paterson, New Jersey
- Train station in the style of an Italian villa, Naugatuck, Connecticut
- Van Vleck Observatory, Olin Memorial Library, the Eclectic Society House, many dormitories and other buildings at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut
- Union Square Savings Bank, Manhattan, New York City
- Ambrose Swasey Pavilion (1916), Exeter, New Hampshire;
- Chelsea Savings Bank, Chelsea, Massachusetts
- Halle Brothers Department Store, Cleveland, Ohio
- Waterbury General Hospital, Waterbury, Connecticut
- National City Bank, New Rochelle, New York
- Citizens & Manufacturers National Bank, Waterbury, Connecticut
- First Congregational Church, Providence, Rhode Island
- Gates for the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia
- Woodmere High School, Woodmere, New York
- Public Bath, Brooklyn, New York
- Foster Mausoleum, Upper Middleburgh Cemetery, Middleburgh, New York
- Perry Memorial Arch, Seaside Park, Bridgeport, Connecticut
- Illinois Centennial Monument, Chicago, IL
- Westlawn Mausoleum, Omaha, Nebraska
Architectural settings, bases and exedra for sculpture
- Commodore George Hamilton Perkins, (1902), Daniel Chester French, sculptor, New Hampshire State House, Concord, New Hampshire
- Roswell Pettibone Flower Monument, (1902), Augustus Saint-Gaudens, sculptor, Watertown, New York
- Col. James Anderson Monument, (1904), Daniel Chester French, sculptor, Allegheny Square, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
- Melvin Memorial (1906-1908), Daniel Chester French, sculptor, Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Concord, Massachusetts
- August Robert Meyer Memorial, (1909) Daniel Chester French, sculptor, Kansas City, Missouri
- Burnside Fountain, (1912) by Charles Y. Harvey, Worcester Common, Worcester, Massachusetts
- Prehn Mausoleum, (1912) Karl Bitter sculptor, carved by the Piccirilli Brothers, Cedar Lawn Cemetery, Paterson, New Jersey
- Abraham Lincoln (1912 statue) by Daniel Chester French, Lincoln, Nebraska,1912.
- Carl Schurz Monument, (1913) Karl Bitter sculptor, Morningside Park, New York City
- Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Monument, (1914), Daniel Chester French, sculptor, Longfellow Park, Cambridge, Massachusetts
- Lafayette Monument, (1917), Daniel Chester French sculptor, Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York
- Ruth Anne Dodge Memorial, (1918), Daniel Chester French sculptor, Fairview Cemetery, Council Bluffs, Iowa
- Depew Memorial Fountain, (1919), Karl Bitter and Alexander Stirling Calder sculptors, University Park, Indianapolis, Indiana
- Russell Alger Memorial Fountain, (1921), Daniel Chester French, sculptor, Grand Circus Park, Detroit, Michigan
- Dupont Circle Fountain, (1921), Daniel Chester French sculptor, Dupont Circle, Washington, D.C.
- Alexander Hamilton Monument, (1923), James Earle Fraser sculptor, Washington D.C.
- Jesse Parker Williams Memorial, (c. 1924), Daniel Chester French sculptor, Westview Cemetery, Atlanta, Georgia
- American Revolutionary War Memorial, (c. 1915), Daniel Chester French sculptor, Jno. Williams, Inc. (NY) founder, Danville, Illinois
- Turner, Jane (1996). The Dictionary of Art. Oxford University Press: Macmillan Publishers Limited. pp. 30–31. ISBN 0-19-517068-7.
- Thomas E. Luebke, ed., Civic Art: A Centennial History of the U.S. Commission of Fine Arts (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Commission of Fine Arts, 2013): Appendix B, p. 539.
- "Members of the Commission." U.S. Commission of Fine Arts. October 3, 2012. Accessed 2012-10-15.
- SS Henry Bacon successfully conducted a heroic rescue mission under heavy German Luftwaffe fire, secured all 19 Norwegian refugees including many children and women, before it was finally sunk on February 23, 1945 by the tremendously heaving bombing of Luftwaffe. Captain Carini of SS Henry Bacon was posthumously awarded the Krigskorset med Sverd or Norwegian War Cross with Sword. This is Norway's highest military award for gallantry and he is one of only two Americans, and 126 foreigners to have received this award.
- "Bridgeport University". Bridgeport.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
- The American Institute of Architects
- The American Academy of Arts & Letters
- Thomas, Christopher, the Lincoln Memorial and its Architect
- Thomas, Christopher, The Lincoln Memorial and American Life, 2002
- The Olin Library, Wesleyan University
- Kvaran, Einar Einarsson, America's Monuments, unpublished manuscript
- Richman, Michael, Daniel Chester French: An American Sculptor, The Preservation Press, Washington D.C., 1976
- Richman, Michael, Daniel Chester French and Henry Bacon, 1980
- Tolles, Bryant and Carolyn, New Hampshire Architecture: An Illustrated Guide, New Hampshire Historical Society, Hanover, New Hampshire, 1979
- Wilkinson, Burke, and David Finn, photographs, Uncommon Clay: The Life and Works of Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers, San Diego 1985
- Wilson, Richard Guy, The AIA Gold Medal, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1984
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Henry Bacon.|
- Thomas, Christopher A. "The Lincoln Memorial and Its Architect, Henry Bacon (1866-1924)" (Ph.D. diss., Yale University, 1990)
- Henry Bacon's Gravestone (closeup)
- Henry Bacon works. Held by the Department of Drawings & Archives, Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Columbia University.