14 April 1903|
7 October 1978 (aged 75)|
|School||School of Illumination|
Philosophy of religion
|Prophetic philosophy, imaginal world|
Corbin was born in Paris in April 1903. Although he was Protestant by birth, he was educated in the Catholic tradition and at the age of 19 received a certificate in Scholastic philosophy from the Catholic Institute of Paris. Three years later he took his "licence de philosophie" under the Thomist Étienne Gilson. In 1928 he encountered Louis Massignon, director of Islamic studies at the Sorbonne, and it was he who introduced Corbin to the writings of Suhrawardi, the 12th century Persian mystic and philosopher whose work was to profoundly affect the course of Corbin's life. Years later Corbin said "through my meeting with Suhrawardi, my spiritual destiny for the passage through this world was sealed. Platonism, expressed in terms of the Zoroastrian angelology of ancient Persia, illuminated the path that I was seeking."
Corbin is responsible for redirecting the study of Islamic philosophy as a whole. In his Histoire de la philosophie islamique (1964), he disproved in his research the common view that philosophy among the Muslims came to an end after Ibn Rushd.
Life and work
The philosophical life and career of Corbin can be divided into three phases. The first is the 1920s and 1930s, when he was involved in learning and teaching western philosophy. The second is the years between 1939 and 1946, in which he studied Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi and the School of Illumination in Istanbul. The last begins at 1946 and lasts until his death, in which he studied and reintroduced eastern and Islamic philosophy.
In 1933 he married Stella Leenhardt. In 1939 they traveled to Istanbul, and in 1945 to Tehran. They returned to Paris one year later in July 1946. In 1949, Corbin first attended the annual Eranos Conferences in Ascona, Switzerland. In 1954 he succeeded Louis Massignon in the Chair of Islam and the Religions of Arabia. From the 1950s on he spent autumn in Tehran, winter in Paris and spring in Ascona.
The three major works upon which his reputation largely rests in the English speaking world were first published in French in the 1950s: Avicenna and the Visionary Recital, Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn 'Arabi' and Spiritual Body & Celestial Earth. His later major work on Central Asian and Iranian Sufism appears in English with an Introduction by Zia Inayat Khan as The Man of Light in Iranian Sufism. His magnum opus is the four volume En Islam Iranien: Aspects spirituels et philosophiques. It has been translated intoFarsi twice by Dr Enshollah Rahmati and Reza Kuhkan from French (the 4th volume being still untranslated ). , He died on 7 October 1978.
There are several main themes which together form the core of the spirituality that Corbin defends. The Imagination is the primary means to engage with Creation. Prayer is the "supreme act of the creative imagination". He considered himself a Protestant Christian but he abandoned a Christocentric view of history. The grand sweep of his theology of the Holy Spirit embraces Judaism, Christianity and Islam. He defended the central role assigned in theology for the individual as the finite image of the Unique Divine.
His mysticism is no world-denying asceticism but regards all of Creation as a theophany of the divine. This vision has much in common with what has become known as Creation Spirituality, and the figure of the Angel Holy Spirit is similar to what is sometimes called the Cosmic Christ.
Legacy and influence
Corbin's work has been criticized by a number of writers. His scholarly objectivity has been questioned on the basis of both a Shi'ite bias, and his theological agenda; he has been accused of being both ahistorically naive and dangerously politically reactionary; and he has been charged with being both an Iranian nationalist and an elitist in both his politics and his spirituality. Forceful rejoinders to the more damning of these critiques by Lory and Subtelny have been particularly lucid.
Corbin's ideas continue to have an impact through the work of colleagues, students and many others influenced by his work. Though this list is far from complete, these include the following prolific Western scholars of Sufism and Islamic thought: Seyyed Hossein Nasr, William Chittick, Christian Jambet, Ali Amir-Moezzi, Hermann Landolt, Pierre Lory, James Cowan, James Morris, and Todd Lawson. In England his influence has been felt in the work of Kathleen Raine, Phillip Sherrard and other members of the Temenos Academy. Corbin was an important source for the archetypal psychology of James Hillman and others who have developed the psychology of Carl Jung. The American literary critic Harold Bloom claims Corbin as a significant influence on his own conception of Gnosticism, and the American poet Charles Olson was a student of Corbin's Avicenna and the Visionary Recital. Corbin's friends and colleagues in France have established L'Association des Amis de Henry et Stella Corbin for the dissemination of his work through meetings and colloquia, and the publication of his posthumous writings.
- Avicenna and the Visionary Recital. Princeton University Press, 1960.
- Histoire de la philosophie Islamique. Gallimard, 1964. (Re-issued by Kegan Paul in 1993 as History of Islamic Philosophy ISBN 0-7103-0416-1..)
- Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn 'Arabi. Princeton University Press, 1969. (Re-issued in 1998 as Alone with the Alone.)
- En Islam Iranien: Aspects spirituels et philosophiques (4 vols.). Gallimard, 1971-3.
- Spiritual Body & Celestial Earth: From Mazdean Iran to Shi'ite Iran. Princeton University Press, 1977.
- Le Paradoxe du Monothéisme. l'Herne, 1981.
- Cyclical Time & Ismaili Gnosis. KPI, 1983.
- L'Homme et Son Ange: Initiation et Chevalerie Spirituelle. Fayard, 1983.
- Face de Dieu, Face de l'homme: Hermeneutique et soufisme. Flammarion, 1983.
- Temple and Contemplation. KPI, 1986.
- The Man of Light in Iranian Sufism. Omega Publications, 1994.
- Swedenborg and Esoteric Islam. Swedenborg Foundation, 1995.
Notes and references
- Corbin, Henry an article by Encyclopedia of Religion
- Wasserstrom (1999), p.145
- Corbin, Henry (1978) En Islam Iranien: Aspects spirituels et philosophiques Gallimard, Paris, OCLC 6776221
- http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/corbin-henry-b Iranica Online]
- Savred Web
- Irib. ir, Henri Corbin view point on Isalam and Iran
- Amis Corbin (trans. Friends of Corbin) in French
- Henry Corbin and the Resolution of Modern Problems by Recourse to the Concept of the Imaginal Realm,by SEYYED MOHSEN MIRI, pdf
- Wasserstrom, Steven M. (1999). Religion After Religion: Gershom Scholem, Mircea Eliade, and Henry Corbin at Eranos. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00540-0.
- Daryush Shayegan, "Henry Corbin" in Encyclopaedia Iranica
- Adams, Charles J. “The Hermeneutics of Henry Corbin,” in Approaches to Islam in Religious Studies, Martin, Ed., University of Arizona Press, 1985.
- Addas, Claude. Quest for the Red Sulphur: The Life of Ibn 'Arabi. Trans. Peter Kingsley. Islamic Texts Society, 1993.
- Algar, Hamid. “The Study of Islam: The Work of Henry Corbin.” Religious Studies Review 6(2) 1980: 85-91.
- Avens, Roberts. "The Subtle Realm: Corbin, Sufism and Swedenborg," in Immanuel Swedenborg: A Continuing Vision, Edited by Robin Larson. Swedenborg Foundation, 1988.
- Amir-Moezzi, M., Christian Jambet and Pierre Lory, (editors). Henry Corbin: Philosophies et Sagesses des Religions du Livre. Brepols, 2005.
- Bamford, Christopher. “Esotericism Today: The Example of Henry Corbin,” in Henry Corbin, The Voyage and the Messenger: Iran and Philosophy. North Atlantic Books, 1998.
- Bloom, Harold. Omens of Millennium: The Gnosis of Angels, Dreams and Resurrection. Riverhead Books, 1996.
- Brown, Norman O., "The Prophetic Tradition," and "The Apocalypse of Islam," in Apocalypse &/or Metamorphosis. University of California Press, 1991.
- Camilleri, Sylvain and Proulx, Daniel. « Martin Heidegger et Henry Corbin : lettres et documents (1930-1941) », in Bulletin heideggérien, vol. 4, 2014, p. 4-63.
- Cheetham, Tom. The World Turned Inside Out: Henry Corbin and Islamic Mysticism. Spring Journal Books, 2003.
- _____ Green Man, Earth Angel: The Prophetic Tradition and the Battle for the Soul of the World. SUNY Press, 2005.
- _____ After Prophecy: Imagination, Incarnation and the Unity of the Prophetic Tradition. Lectures for the Temenos Academy. Spring Journal Books, 2007.
- _____ All the World an Icon: Henry Corbin and the Angelic Function of Beings, North Atlantic Books, 2012.
- _____ Imaginal Love: The Meanings of Imagination in Henry Corbin and James Hillman, Spring Publications, 2015.
- Chittick, William. The Sufi Path of Knowledge: Ibn 'Arabi's Metaphysics of the Imagination. SUNY Press, 1989.
- Chodkiewicz, Michel. An Ocean without Shore: Ibn 'Arabi, the Book and the Law. Trans. David Streight. Islamic Texts Society, 1993.
- ______ Seal of the Saints: Prophethood and Sainthood in the Doctrine of Ibn 'Arabi. Trans. Liadain Sherrard. Islamic Texts Society, 1993.
- Corbin, H. (1969). Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn `Arabi. (Trans. R. Manheim. Original French, 1958.) Princeton, NJ. Princeton University Press.
- Corbin, H. (1972). Mundus Imaginalis, the Imaginary and the Imaginal. Spring, 1972 pp. 1–19. New York: Analytical Psychology Club of New York, Inc.
- Elmore, Gerald. Islamic Sainthood in the Fullness of Time: Ibn al-'Arabi's Book of the Fabulous Gryphon. Brill, 1998.
- Jambet, Christian, (Editor). Henry Corbin. Cahier de l'Herne, no. 39. Consacré à Henry Corbin, 1981.
- _____ La logique des Orientaux: Henry Corbin et la science des formes. Éditions du Seuil, 1983.
- Giuliano, Glauco. Il Pellegrinaggio in Oriente di Henry Corbin. Con una scelta di testi. Lavis (Trento-Italia), La Finestra editrice, 2003.
- Giuliano, Glauco. Nîtârtha. Saggi per un pensiero eurasiatico. Lavis (Trento-Italia), La Finestra editrice, 2004.
- Giuliano, Glauco. L'Immagine del Tempo in Henry Corbin. Verso un'idiochronia angelomorfica. Milano-Udine, Mimesis, 2009.
- Landolt, Hermann. "Henry Corbin, 1903-1978: Between Philosophy and Orientalism,” Journal of the American Oriental Society, 119(3): 484-490, 1999.
- Lory, Pierre. Review of Wasserstrom, 1999, at http://www.amiscorbin.com.
- Morris, James. The Reflective Heart: Discovering Spiritual Intelligence in Ibn 'Arabi's Meccan Illuminations. Fons Vitae, 2005.
- Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Henry Corbin: The Life and Works of the Occidental Exile in Quest of the Orient of Light," Ch. 17, in S.H. Nasr, Traditional Islam in the Modern World. KPI, 1987.
- Shayegan, Daryush. Henry Corbin penseur de l'islam spirituel, Paris, Albin Michel, 2010, 428 p.
- Subtelny, Maria E. “History and Religion: The Fallacy of Metaphysical Questions (A Review Article).” Iranian Studies: March 2003, 36(1): 91-101.
- Suhrawardi, Yahyá ibn Habash. The philosophy of illumination: A new critical edition of the text of Hikmat al-Ishraq. with English translation, notes, commentary, and introduction by John Walbridge & Hossein Ziai. Brigham Young University Press, 1999.
Part of a series on Islam
- Varzi, Roxanne."Iran’s French Revolution: Religion, Philosophy, and Crowds" The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol 637, Issue 1, pp. 53 - 63, July 25, 2011
- Official website
- Tom Cheetham's Corbin blog
- Corbin, Henry an article by Encyclopedia of Religion
- Corbin, Henry(1903–1978) an article by Encyclopedia of philosophy
- From 'Heidegger to Suhrawardi': An Introduction to the thought of Henry Corbin
- Between Heidegger and the Hidden Imam: Reflections on Henry Corbin's approaches to mystical Islam
- Imaginal World, introducing true creativity