Henry Cromwell, 2nd Baron Cromwell

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Henry Cromwell, 2nd Baron Cromwell
Ardglass Escutcheon.png
Arms of Cromwell, Baron Cromwell: Quarterly, per fess, indented, azure and or, four lions passant counterchanged[1]
BornHenry Cromwell
1538
Died20 November 1592 (aged 53–54)
Launde Abbey, Leicestershire, England
Resting placeLaunde Abbey Chapel
52°37′52″N 0°49′23″W / 52.631111°N 0.823056°W / 52.631111; -0.823056
Title2nd Baron Cromwell
Tenure1551–1592
Known forSon of Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell
NationalityEnglish
LocalityLeicestershire
Spouse(s)Mary Paulet
IssueEdward Cromwell, 3rd Baron Cromwell
Gregory Cromwell
Katherine Cromwell
ParentsGregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell
Elizabeth Seymour

Henry Cromwell, 2nd Baron Cromwell (before 1 March 1538[2] – 20 November 1592[3]) was an English peer. He was the eldest son of Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell and Elizabeth Seymour, daughter to John Seymour of Wolf Hall, Wiltshire, and to Margery Wentworth. His mother's siblings included Jane Seymour, third consort of Henry VIII and the Protector Somerset.[4]

Family and early life[edit]

Henry Cromwell was baptised 1 March 1538, probably at Hampton Court, where the Lady Mary almost certainly stood godmother.[2] Shortly after the baptism, his parents left for Lewes in Sussex to the former Cluniac Priory of St. Pancras, recently acquired by his grandfather Thomas Cromwell, where they remained from April 1538 until 1539, when they took up residence in Leeds Castle, Kent.[5] In December 1539, after the birth of a second son, Edward, Gregory Cromwell wrote to his wife at Leeds Castle, from Calais, "I am, thanks be to God, in good health, trusting shortly to hear from you like news, as well of yourself as also my little boys, of whose increase and towardness be you assured I am not a little desirous to be advertised."[6]

Cromwell's mother, Elizabeth married three times. She married firstly, by July 1530,[7] Anthony Ughtred, governor of Jersey, by whom she had two children:[8][9][10]

In 1537, three years after death of Anthony Ughtred in October 1534, she married Gregory Cromwell, the son of Thomas Cromwell and 1st Baron Cromwell. The couple had three sons and two daughters:[3][8][14]

  • Henry Cromwell, 2nd Baron Cromwell, (1538–1592)
  • Edward Cromwell, (1539 – died young)
  • Thomas Cromwell, (c. 1540 – 1611), educated at St John's College, Cambridge. Married, August 1580, Katherine (died 1615/1616), daughter of Thomas Gardner of Coxford, 5 sons, 4 daughters.
  • Katherine or Catherine Cromwell, (c. 1541 – ) wife of John Strode of Parnham, Dorset, son of Robert Strode and Elizabeth Hody, had six sons
  • Frances Cromwell (c. 1544 – 7 February 1562) married Richard Strode of Newnham, Devon, son of William Strode of Newnham and Elizabeth Courtenay, on 11 November 1560 at Compton, Hampshire, they had one son, William Strode

Gregory Lord Cromwell died of sweating sickness on 4 July 1551 leaving his heir a minor at thirteen years of age.[3][5] Henry's mother went on to marry, in 1554, as her third husband, Sir John Paulet, later Lord St John. She died 19 March 1568, and was buried 5 April[15] at Basing, Hampshire.[16] His step-father later married, before 30th September 1568, Winifred, widow of Sir Richard Sackville, and daughter of John Brydges, a former Lord Mayor of London.[17] He succeeded his father as Marquess of Winchester in 1572.[18]

Henry Cromwell was educated at St. John's College Cambridge, where he matriculated in 1553. He may have been admitted to Lincoln's Inn, 7 March 1557.[19]

Peerage[edit]

Henry's grandfather, Thomas Cromwell, had been created Baron Cromwell of Wimbledon and Earl of Essex as a reward for his service as chief minister to Henry VIII, but he had lost those titles by attainder in June 1540.[20] On 18 December 1540, his son Gregory was created 1st Baron Cromwell. This title was a new creation rather than a restoration of his father's forfeited barony.[21] Henry succeeded his father as the second Baron Cromwell under that creation. A minor at his father's premature death, he was first summoned to Parliament in 1563[3]

Marriage and issue[edit]

Cromwell married, before 1560, Mary Paulet, (c. 1540 – 10 October 1592),[3] the daughter of his stepfather John Paulet, 2nd Marquess of Winchester and his first wife Elizabeth Willoughby,[3] and by her had issue:[3]

Death[edit]

Cromwell's wife, Mary died at North Elmham, Norfolk, 10 October 1592, and was buried, on 23 October, at Launde Abbey Leicestershire.[3] He died shortly after his wife, on 20 November at North Elmham, Norfolk, 1592 and was buried, on 4 December, in the chapel at Launde Abbey, Launde, Leicestershire.[3][29]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Burke 1866, p. 147.
  2. ^ a b MacCulloch 2018, pp. 440–441.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cokayne III 1913, p. 558.
  4. ^ Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry III 2011, pp. 111–112.
  5. ^ a b Hawkyard 1982.
  6. ^ Wood II 1846, pp. 357–358.
  7. ^ Fitzgerald 2019.
  8. ^ a b Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry III 2011, p. 111.
  9. ^ Thornton 2012, p. 71.
  10. ^ a b Flower 1881, p. 146.
  11. ^ Syvret 1832, pp. 60–61, Henry Ughtred was one year old when his father died in October 1534.
  12. ^ Colby 1872, p. 76.
  13. ^ Cokayne IV 1916, pp. 332–333.
  14. ^ Noble 1784, pp. 8–9.
  15. ^ College of Arms 2012, p. 63.
  16. ^ Cokayne III 1913, p. 558.
  17. ^ Richardson, Magna Carta Ancestry III 2011, p. 311.
  18. ^ Cokayne VIII 1898, p. 173.
  19. ^ Venn 1922, p. 422.
  20. ^ Cokayne III 1913, p. 557.
  21. ^ Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, 16, 379-34.
  22. ^ Burke 1831, pp. 152–153.
  23. ^ Shaw II 1906, p. 96.
  24. ^ Lee 1888, pp. 151–152.
  25. ^ Carthew 1878, p. 522, 524, Gregory Cromwell is listed in his father's will.
  26. ^ Shaw II 1906, p. 102.
  27. ^ a b Ferris 2010.
  28. ^ Cokayne 1900, p. 18.
  29. ^ Richardson, Plantagenet Ancestry I 2011, p. 605.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Peerage of England
Preceded by
Gregory Cromwell
Baron Cromwell
1551–1592
Succeeded by
Edward Cromwell